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Lin Chen, Yongqiang Yu, and De-Zheng Sun

1. Introduction Cloud and water vapor are major modulators in the climate system and strongly influence both the global circulation and energy balance through their radiative effects ( Manabe and Wetherald 1967 ; Hartmann and Short 1980 ; Harrison et al. 1990 ; Kiehl and Trenberth 1997 ; Soden 1997 ; Houghton et al. 2001 ; Stephens 2005 ). The climate sensitivity to the rise of the manmade greenhouse gases in the atmosphere depends critically on the feedbacks from water vapor and clouds

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Jeanne M. Thibeault and Anji Seth

. F. B. Mitchell , 2007 : The WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset: A new era in climate change research . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 1383 – 1394 . Mestas-Nunez , A. M. , and D. B. Enfield , 2007 : Water vapor fluxes over the Intra-Americas Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability and associations with rainfall . J. Climate , 20 , 1910 – 1922 . Moss , R. H. , and Coauthors , 2010 : The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment . Nature , 463

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Justin Sheffield, Andrew P. Barrett, Brian Colle, D. Nelun Fernando, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Tong Ren, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Yolande L. Serra, Anji Seth, Jeanne M. Thibeault, Julienne C. Stroeve, Ze Yang, and Lei Yin

-Atmosphere-Land System model, spectral version 2: FGOALS-s2 . Adv. Atmos. Sci. , 30 , 561 – 576 . Benton , G. S. , and M. A. Estoque , 1954 : Water-vapor transfer over the North American continent. J. Meteor., 11, 462–477. Bi , D. , and Coauthors , 2012 : ACCESS: The Australian Coupled Climate Model for IPCC AR5 and CMIP5. Extended Abstracts, 18th AMOS National Conf., Sydney, Australia, Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 123. Blackadar , A. K. , 1957 : Boundary layer wind

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Anji Seth, Sara A. Rauscher, Michela Biasutti, Alessandra Giannini, Suzana J. Camargo, and Maisa Rojas

1. Introduction Under increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, land–sea thermal contrasts are expected to increase. The increase is in part due to differences in thermal inertia between land and ocean but largely because oceans divert more of the anomalous incoming energy into latent heat rather than increasing surface temperature ( Sutton et al. 2007 ). Where moisture is abundant (i.e., over oceans), warmer surface temperatures lead to robust increases in atmospheric water vapor owing to the

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Kerrie L. Geil, Yolande L. Serra, and Xubin Zeng

. Wang , 2008 : Do CGCMs simulate the North American monsoon precipitation seasonal-interannual variability? J. Climate , 21 , 4424 – 4448 . NCAR , cited 2012 : NCAR Command Language, version 6.0.0. [Available online at .] Rowson , R. W. , and S. J. Colucci , 1992 : Synoptic climatology of thermal low-pressure systems over south-western North America . Int. J. Climatol. , 12 , 529 – 545 . Schmitz , J. T. , and S. L. Mullen , 1996 : Water vapor

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Leila M. V. Carvalho and Charles Jones

precipitation changes obtained by comparing the sensitivity experiments with a control simulation is the so-called q term (thermodynamic component): that is, the term that depends on the water vapor content change. Vertical velocity changes, horizontal moisture advection, and the evaporation play different roles depending on the region of the monsoon ( Cherchi et al. 2011 ). The authors found that NAMS and SAMS experience a precipitation increase in the sensitivity experiments relative to the control

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Baird Langenbrunner and J. David Neelin

are widespread spatially. An example of these processes is an increase in tropospheric temperature driving changes in radiative fluxes, as well as driving an increase in water vapor and a corresponding increase in the threshold for convection (the thermodynamic process sometimes referred to as the “rich-get-richer” mechanism; Chou and Neelin 2004 ; Held and Soden 2006 ; Trenberth 2011 ). At the same time, feedbacks associated with dynamical changes in moisture convergence can produce large

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

satellite products are utilized in the OAFlux synthesis, including wind speed retrievals from both scatterometer and radiometer microwave remote sensing and SST daily high-resolution blended analysis by Reynolds et al. (2007) , as well as a near-surface humidity product that was derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) column water vapor retrievals ( Chou et al. 2001 ). A common period of 1998–2010 is used for the observations because of the relatively short record of the TRMM rainfall

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Brian A. Colle, Zhenhai Zhang, Kelly A. Lombardo, Edmund Chang, Ping Liu, and Minghua Zhang

). Latent heating may become more important for the intensity of these storms, since the globally averaged mean water vapor is projected to increase ( Meehl et al. 2007 ). Model spatial resolution is also important for the cyclone predictions. Jung et al. (2006) showed that a global model with T95 resolution can only simulate ~60% of the observed number of cyclones. Joyce et al. (2009) used a regional climate model over the western Atlantic to show a meridional shift of the local storm track along

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Edmund K. M. Chang

midlatitude extratropical cyclones found in many studies (e.g., Geng and Sugi 2003 ; Lambert and Fyfe 2006 ; Bengtsson et al. 2006 ; Lim and Simmonds 2009 ). On the other hand, warming leads to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, which could lead to enhanced latent heat release, possibly giving rise to more intense cyclones ( Lambert and Fyfe 2006 ). However, Bengtsson et al. (2009) found no significant increase in cyclone intensity measured in terms of extreme winds or vorticity in a

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