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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

interglacial time scales, the tropical latitudes may have an important (indirect) impact on high-latitude climates through changes in greenhouse gases, including atmospheric methane (CH 4 ) and water vapor. A high-resolution record of CH 4 was recently obtained from an annually dated Antarctic ice core on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide, building on prior work in Greenland ( Buizert et al. 2015 ). Changes in tropical biosystems, specifically in the Neotropics and Southeast Asia, are a

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

). Without the insulating effect of sea ice, the newly exposed warm surface waters will flux heat and water vapor into the overlying atmosphere, warming and moistening the lower troposphere (e.g., Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Winds will mix the excess heat and moisture southward over the adjacent continents, increasing temperature and precipitation at high latitudes ( Deser et al. 2010 ). Northern land areas are also expected to experience a decrease in surface temperature variance ( Screen et al. 2015a

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

-surface temperatures other processes, for example those influenced by tropical climate variability, may also exert control on the isotopic signature of the water vapor. Fig . 3. (a) Annual net accumulation (m w.e.) from 1900 to 2009 reconstructed from the BP ice core. (b) Annual temperatures (and trend) for the full records available from Faraday/Vernadsky Station (red) and Rothera Station (black) along the northwestern coast of the AP ( Fig. 1 ). (c) Annual average δ 18 O from 1900 to 2009 reconstructed from the

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Changhyun Yoo, Sungsu Park, Daehyun Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Hye-Mi Kim

anomaly does not evolve with time as observed. In addition, the patterns of phase 7 ( Fig. 7f ) do not bear much resemblance to the observation ( Fig. 7d ). This is consistent with the fact that the circulation anomalies are unsuccessfully represented in CAM5 (green contours). Last, the precipitation anomalies associated with the MJO are explored ( Fig. 8 ). The MJO is known to affect the precipitation rate over the North Pacific and America through its modulation on water vapor transport from the

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