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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

rotation and the sphericity of Earth [for an introductory-level text on Rossby waves see Rhines (2002) ]. Rossby waves are in distinct contrast to other types of waves such as gravity waves or sound waves, which rely on gravity or the compressibility of air, respectively, for their basic restoring mechanism. The atmospheric general circulation cannot be understood without reference to Rossby waves because they transfer energy, moisture, and momentum across large distances. This can generate

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

momentum. The oscillation is an important factor in the timing of active and break phasesof the Indian and Australian monsoons. It affects ocean waves, currents, and air-sea interaction. The oscillationwas particularly active during the First GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Global Experiment year,and some features that were evident during the Monsoon Experiment are described.1o Introduction Reviewing the literature on the phenomenon that we(Madden and Julian 1971) called the 40-50-day

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J. R. Garratt

-6527.Delsol, F., K. Miyakado and R. H. Clarke, 1971: Parameterizedprocesses in the surface boundary layer of an atmosphericcirculation model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 97, 181-208.Dobson, F. W., 1971: Measurements of atmospheric pressure of wind-generated sea waves. J. Fluid Mech., 48, 91-127.Dyer, A. J., 1974: A review of flux-profile relationships. Bound. Layer Meteor., 7, 363-372.Dyer, A. J., and B. B. Hicks, 1970: Flux-gradient relationships in the constant flux layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

at or ahead of various atmospheric density currents (e.g., Haase and Smith 1984 ; Carbone et al. 1990 ; Koch et al. 1991 ; Kruse and Johnson 1995 ; Locatelli et al. 1998 ; Koch and Clark 1999 ) or at the collision of such boundaries (e.g., Wakimoto and Kingsmill 1995 ; Kingsmill and Crook 2003 ). Bores cause a “permanent” displacement of a layer aloft while atmospheric solitary waves occur when a layer is displaced upward and then returns back to its original height. However, since

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Daniel Keyser and M. A. Shapiro

-scale variations in thethermal and wind fields is on the order of several days,although rapid intensification may be focused intoshorter, mesoscale periods of 6 to 12 h. The meteorological significance of both surface andupper-level fronts stems from their relationship to thestructure and evolution of midlatitude baroclinic wavesand cyclones. Although fronts occupy only a relativelysmall fraction of the atmospheric volume affected bybaroclinic waves, they contribute a substantial fractionof the dynamical

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David M. Schultz

mechanism for formation, if these features are hydrostatically balanced (which we believe they likely are for the majority of events discussed in the literature—one possible nonhydrostatic mechanism is discussed in section 3h ), surface pressure changes or wind shifts must be accompanied by temperature changes within the overlying air column. For example, if a surface pressure trough is to exist, then the average temperature in the atmospheric column over the surface trough must be warmer than

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

cyclones” of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center SFB/TRR 165 “Waves to Weather” program funded by the German Science Foundation (Riemer); and Ouranos (the regional climate consortium of Quebec), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (Milrad). The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The views in this manuscript are those of the authors alone and

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

.1175/MWR-D-17-0219.1 Riboldi , J. , C. M. Grams , M. Riemer , and H. M. Archambault , 2019 : A phase locking perspective on Rossby wave amplification and atmospheric blocking downstream of recurving western North Pacific tropical cyclones . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 147 , 567 – 589 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-18-0271.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0271.1 Riemer , M. , and S. C. Jones , 2010 : The downstream impact of tropical cyclones on a developing baroclinic wave in idealized scenarios of

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T. N. Krishnamurti

low frequency modes--especially on the time scale of 30to 50 days. It is becoming apparent that modulations of active and inactive spells of the monsoon are relatedto wave motions on this time scale. These MONEX data sets provide a strong signal for monitoring these waves.These wave motions on the planetary scale move eastward; on a more regional scale they move northward overthe monsoon region. Their behavior is illustrated with respect to the onset, active and break monsoons.1. Introductio

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

is well known that numerical methods used in the dynamical core do not resolve the shortest wavelengths (e.g., the wave) accurately. Physical parameterizations should not be passed scales that, from linear theory, are not accurately represented. On the other hand, computing physics tendencies on a higher-resolution grid compared to the dynamical core may provide a better sampling of the atmospheric state, somewhat similar to the subcolumns concept ( Pincus et al. 2003 ; Barker et al. 2008

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