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Xichen Li, David M. Holland, Edwin P. Gerber, and Changhyun Yoo

warmed Indian Ocean and cooled eastern Pacific are comparatively weaker, both of which deepen the ASL in the CAM4 simulation. In all simulations forced by the Atlantic and Pacific SST changes, we can observe distinct wave features, implying an underlying Rossby wave dynamics, which is consistent with previous understanding of tropical–polar teleconnections ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Hoskins and Ambrizzi 1993 ; Jin and Hoskins 1995 ; Ding et al. 2011 ; Li et al. 2015 ). Fig . 2. CAM4 simulated

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Xiaofang Feng, Qinghua Ding, Liguang Wu, Charles Jones, Ian Baxter, Robert Tardif, Samantha Stevenson, Julien Emile-Geay, Jonathan Mitchell, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Huijun Wang, and Eric J. Steig

forcings . Geosci. Model Dev. , 5 , 649 – 682 , . 10.5194/gmd-5-649-2012 Plumb , R. A. , 1985 : On the three-dimensional propagation of stationary waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 42 , 217 – 229 ,<0217:OTTDPO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0217:OTTDPO>2.0.CO;2 Polyakov , I. V. , and Coauthors , 2017 : Greater role for Atlantic inflows on sea-ice loss in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean . Science

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

transport. The resulting dynamically induced warming of the tropical oceans intensifies the intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs) on their equatorward flanks, which in turn alters the midlatitude atmospheric circulation via Rossby wave dynamics. In contrast, the thermodynamic air–sea coupled response to Arctic sea ice loss produces a very different tropical response, shifting the Hadley circulation toward the Northern Hemisphere (NH). A similar thermodynamic coupled response to an extratropical

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

associated Rossby wave trains influence the southern annular mode (SAM) and surface temperature around the AP and West Antarctica ( Ding et al. 2011 , 2012 ; Ding and Steig 2013 ; Schneider et al. 2012a , b ; Clem and Fogt 2013 , 2015 ; Clem and Renwick 2015 ; Yu et al. 2015 ). The tropical forcing that influences the high latitudes has been also found in the equatorial Atlantic ( Li et al. 2014 ; Simpkins et al. 2014 ) and Indian Ocean ( Nuncio and Yuan 2015 ). In addition to the connective

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Kyle R. Clem and James A. Renwick

western tropical Pacific to ~30°S, 120°W ( Kiladis et al. 1989 ; Vincent 1994 ; Widlansky et al. 2011 ). The SPCZ is known to be modulated by ENSO and the PDO ( Folland et al. 2002 ). Because of the strong and persistent convective activity along the SPCZ, it strongly influences circulation patterns across the southern oceans through the generation of Rossby waves that propagate poleward from this area. Because the SPCZ is modulated by both ENSO and the PDO, the findings of Clem and Fogt (2015

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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

preceded several days earlier by enhanced convection [as indicated by negative anomalies in OLR] over the tropical Indian–western Pacific Ocean and a few days later by a Rossby wave train over the North Pacific and North America. This result is consistent with a modeling study ( Yoo et al. 2012b ) that shows a similar arching wave train in the transient solution of a global circulation model, when initialized with warm pool convective heating superimposed on a climatological DJF background flow. By lag

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David P. Schneider, Clara Deser, and Tingting Fan

oceanic gyres ( England et al. 2014 ). The negative rainfall trends over the central tropical Pacific ( Fig. 2b ) imply strongly negative diabatic heating anomalies, giving rise to the expectation of an atmospheric Rossby wave response that may impact the SH atmospheric circulation ( Trenberth et al. 2014 ). With the zonal-mean trend removed, the central and eastern Pacific cooling stands out as anomalous ( Fig. 2f ), which sets the stage for the circulation response in the model simulations described

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M. Nuncio and Xiaojun Yuan

polar Southern Hemisphere. IOD events excite Rossby wave trains in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, which are then trapped in the westerlies and propagate around Antarctica, modulating the Southern Hemisphere surface temperature anomalies ( Saji et al. 2005 ; Cai et al. 2009b , 2011 ). This influence the weather in remote regions as far as South America, where the rainfall is modified by anomalous anticyclonic wind patterns induced by the Rossby wave trains associated with the IOD events ( Chan

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

calculated by subtracting the smoothed climatology for the corresponding day of the year. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) index is obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Prediction Center (NOAA/CPC). For the composites, lag day zero corresponds to December through February (DJF) days during which transient interference with the climatological stationary wave is constructive (SWI > 1.0) or destructive (SWI < −1.0). Table 1. Number of DJF days in each composite, based on

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Kate Snow, Andrew McC. Hogg, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Stephanie M. Downes

1. Introduction Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is one of the densest and most voluminous water masses of the global ocean. It forms the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and plays an important role in transporting carbon, heat, and freshwater sequestered from the atmosphere to the deep ocean ( Johnson 2008 ; Kuhlbrodt et al. 2007 ; Ríos et al. 2012 ; Purkey and Johnson 2013 ). AABW source water is formed initially through surface buoyancy losses via cooling and brine

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