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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

1. Introduction Peninsular Florida (PF) sits on the border of the tropics and the extratropics, which makes for its unique geography in the continental United States. Thus, small shifts in the distinct circulation patterns and the thermodynamics of the tropics and extratropics tend to have a profound impact on PF ( Selman et al. 2013 ; Kirtman et al. 2017 ). In addition, the robust ocean circulations around PF ( Misra and Mishra 2016 ; Misra et al. 2017a ) are known to affect the hydroclimate

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Lucas J. Sterzinger and Adele L. Igel

× 4500 km with 15-km spacing, and a two-way nested grid over the Sierra Nevada mountains of 925 km × 700 km with 5-km spacing. A snapshot of model simulated integrated water vapor (shaded colors) and sea level pressure (contours) is shown in Fig. 3a where the plotted area represents the large domain, and the red box represents the nested domain (which is zoomed in on Fig. 3b , with 500-m topographic contours). The larger domain extends west into the Pacific Ocean in order to properly capture the

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Chris Kidd, Erin Dawkins, and George Huffman

decay of mesoscale convective systems and gravity waves ( Wang et al. 2007 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ; Vondou et al. 2010 ). This complexity of the diurnal cycle over land means that, while the mechanisms of the diurnal cycle over land are well understood, the model performs better over the ocean areas. All comparisons in this study of ECMWF model performance were made relative to the TRMM TMPA and TRMM PR products. Despite the TMPA generally performing well ( Dai et al. 2007 ; Sapiano and Arkin

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David A. Lavers, Shaun Harrigan, and Christel Prudhomme

modeled freshwater flux from the land to the ocean. The resulting reduced ocean salinity then in turn could affect the ocean circulation and degrade ocean–atmosphere interactions. It has been previously found in a project—named the Benefits of dynamically modeled river discharge input for ocean and coupled atmosphere–land–ocean systems ( Mercator Ocean 2020 )—that when coupling the land and the ocean with the GloFAS-ERA5 river discharge reanalysis, a large degradation was seen in ocean modeling skill

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

.9° × 1.25°). The FHIST component set was used in CESM. CESM is composed of several Earth system component models: ocean, land, atmosphere, sea ice, land ice, river, and ocean wave. There are many defined component sets available to CESM users; each determines the active component(s) for a given model run. Component sets beginning with “F” have active land and atmosphere components while all other components are inactive or prescribed. “HIST” component sets use transient forcing valid for

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Zongjian Ke, Xingwen Jiang, Jinming Feng, and Zunya Wang

Ocean are warmer in P1 ( Figs. 8a,b ). As local cold SST anomalies could suppress local convection and favor a strong low-level anticyclone by diabatic cooling, the colder SST anomalies observed in P2 are accompanied by lower sea level pressures and a stronger low-level anomalous anticyclone in the western North Pacific. The westward extension of the anomalous anticyclone to the Bay of Bengal may be explained as a Rossby wave response to diabatic cooling in the western North Pacific. As a result

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Hamish McGowan, Kara Borthwick, Andrew Schwartz, John Nik Callow, Shane Bilish, and Stuart Browning

subsiding air—a common component of ARs. Reid et al. (2019) also identified a large-scale wave pattern propagating across the Indian Ocean during winter NWCB days. This is consistent with the idea that NWCBs are associated with refracted Rossby waves and that in the Southern Hemisphere they may be influenced by longwave circulations ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). As the moisture-laden northwesterly airstream on the northern side of the baroclinic convergence encounters the Australian Alps, orographic

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Xiaodong Chen, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Gao, and Ying Liu

States and many other regions around the world ( Redmond and Koch 1991 ; Dettinger et al. 1998 ). Through their impacts on convection and diabatic heating, SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean induce Rossby waves that result in the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection ( Barnston and Livezey 1987 ). The PNA pattern influences precipitation and temperature in the western United States on a seasonal-to-interannual time scale. On interannual-to-decadal time scale, SST anomalies associated

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David A MacLeod, Rutger Dankers, Richard Graham, Kiswendsida Guigma, Luke Jenkins, Martin C. Todd, Augustine Kiptum, Mary Kilavi, Andrew Njogu, and Emmah Mwangi

with extensive flood loss and damage from exceptionally wet seasons. During the “long rains” season of 2018 flooding across Kenya caused the displacement of 300 000 people ( OCHA 2018 ), shortly followed by the “short rains” October–December season flooding of 2019, associated with a strong Indian Ocean dipole event ( Doi et al. 2020 ; Wainwright et al. 2020 ). Anomalous wet conditions persisted across East Africa through to May 2020 resulting in hundreds of deaths from flood and landslides and

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

extreme precipitation events, the anomalously low pressure in the Gulf of Alaska extends vertically into the middle troposphere, which is not necessarily the case for all ARs. A jet streak at 250 hPa is also located directly over the region during extreme precipitation events, as opposed to southwest, over the Pacific Ocean. Despite not being discussed here, Rossby wave breaking is an important mechanism for AR-induced extreme precipitation events ( Ryoo et al. 2013 ; Payne and Magnusdottir 2014

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