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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, MJOs can perturb SSTs by ~0.5°C ( Maloney and Kiehl 2002 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ) and modify the tropical cyclogenesis over the northeastern Pacific Ocean by generating eddy kinetic energy ( Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ). The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) is a distinct and dominant feature in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of strong convection and large precipitation, and plays an important role in regional weather and climate ( Trenberth 1976 ; Vincent

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

Temperature (OISST), version 2, dataset. It is based on the Pathfinder Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite data from 1982 to 2005 and operational AVHRR data from 2006 onward ( Reynolds et al. 2002 ). The atmospheric data of 850-hPa zonal and meridional winds and surface heat fluxes are from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). They have a T255 spectral resolution and 60 vertical levels from the surface to 0

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, and Shuanglin Li

multidecadal fluctuation of the CEF seesaw, and the possible role of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) in the CEF seesaw are discussed in section 5 . A summary is given in section 6 . 2. Observational data and model experiments a. Observational data and methods Monthly mean horizontal and vertical winds at multiple pressure levels, sea level pressure (SLP), precipitation, and SST data for the period 1900–2010 are derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction There has been growing interest in forecasts at subseasonal time scales (i.e., 3–4 weeks; National Research Council 2010 ; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2016 ), which fills the gap between medium-range weather forecast and seasonal prediction. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ), the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal climate variability in the boreal winter and spring, is considered to be a major source of global

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

1. Introduction East Asia is subject to frequent cold events during boreal winter. The long-lasting cold event in January and early February 2008 caused large economic and life losses in eastern China ( Zhou et al. 2009 ; Wen et al. 2009 ). In December 2009, several cold events occurred in the United States, Europe, and East Asia, bringing grave damage to these regions ( Wang and Chen 2010 ). A strong cold event struck East Asia in January 2016, causing snowfall and frigid weather in many

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) plays an important role as a heat and moisture source that can impact global circulation and modulate planetary-scale variability ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). However, despite its importance, large errors are commonly found in the MC region in global and regional climate and weather models (e.g., Gianotti et al. 2012 ; Holloway et al. 2012 ; Nguyen et al. 2015 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2012 ; and others). One likely source of these errors arises from the

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Zealand downstream. Hence the change in local winds also force some modifications in surface fluxes and wind stress. Any link between ENSO-related variations in the ITF and the Tasman Sea heat waves has been generally assigned to the atmospheric bridge connections. The studies thus far have overlooked the likelihood that there is also a direct ocean connection through the changes in mass and heat transport with the ITF that indeed relate to opposite changes in the East Australian Current region

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