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Tyler J. Thorsen, Richard A. Ferrare, Seiji Kato, and David M. Winker

1. Introduction The most elementary understanding of how aerosols influence forcing of Earth’s climate begins with the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE)—the effect of aerosol scattering and absorption on the shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Passive satellite remote sensing estimates of the aerosol DRE ( Yu et al. 2006 , and references therein) can be highly uncertain outside of cloud-free ocean scenes ( Li et al. 2009 ; Kokhanovsky et al. 2010 ). Advances have been

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Tyler J. Thorsen, David M. Winker, and Richard A. Ferrare

anthropogenic aerosols ( Kaufman et al. 2005b ; Anderson 2005 ; Bellouin et al. 2005 ; Christopher et al. 2006 ; Yu et al. 2006 , 2009 ) along with the additional uncertainty in relating the present-day properties of aerosols to those during the preindustrial era ( Bellouin et al. 2008 ; Myhre 2009 ). The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE)—the radiative effect of all aerosols both natural and anthropogenic—is more readily quantifiable from satellite observations (e.g., Boucher and Tanré 2000

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Brittany N. Carson-Marquis, Jianglong Zhang, Peng Xian, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Jared W. Marquis

/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART) aerosol scheme ( Ginoux et al. 2001 ) and the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) longwave and shortwave radiation parameterizations ( Iacono et al. 2008 ). Note that the RRTMG scheme is able to simulate direct aerosol effects through direct coupling with the GOCART aerosol module ( UCAR 2017 ). As previously mentioned, the indirect effect is not investigated within this study. b. NAAPS The NAAPS model is an operational

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Cheng Liu, Evgeni Fedorovich, Jianping Huang, Xiao-Ming Hu, Yongwei Wang, and Xuhui Lee

and dynamic properties of the CBL entrainment can be modified by the presence of atmospheric aerosols due to their shortwave radiative absorption effect ( Yu et al. 2002 ; Barbaro et al. 2013 ). In particular, uncertainties of entrainment quantification under conditions of strong aerosol pollution tend to be larger as compared to the entrainment predictions for the CBL without aerosols or with a low load of aerosols. Parameterizations of entrainment are vital to regional or global numerical

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Yuan Wang, Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Yong-Sang Choi, Lei Huang, Jianping Guo, and Yuk L. Yung

reflectivity and weakened solar scattering induce a “dimming” effect and result in 5 W m −2 ERF as a local maximum. Such a positive ERF extends from midlatitude Europe and the United States to the North Atlantic and even the North Pole. Meanwhile, the exacerbating Asian pollution produced a negative ERF anomaly in the northeast part of the Eurasian continent. The net positive (negative) radiative forcing with a decrease (increase) in aerosol concentration reflects that the black carbon effect in the

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Yiquan Jiang, Xiu-Qun Yang, Xiaohong Liu, Yun Qian, Kai Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Fang Li, Yong Wang, and Zheng Lu

-emitted aerosols on climate have received more attention recently. The fire aerosolsradiative effect (RE) and radiative forcing (RF) are estimated to quantify its impacts. RE represents the instantaneous radiative impact of atmospheric particles on Earth’s energy balance ( Heald et al. 2014 ), and RF is calculated as the change of RE between two different periods (e.g., preindustrial and present-day). The fire aerosolsradiative effects/forcings could be due to aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI), aerosol

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Chu-Chun Huang, Shu-Hua Chen, Yi-Chiu Lin, Kenneth Earl, Toshihisa Matsui, Hsiang-He Lee, I-Chun Tsai, Jen-Ping Chen, and Chao-Tzuen Cheng

other aerosols, the two major ways dust can alter ambient meteorological conditions, formation and development of cloud, and large-scale circulations are by interacting with 1) radiation (i.e., the dust–radiation interaction, dust-direct effect, or dust-radiative effect) and 2) clouds (i.e., the dust–cloud interaction, dust-indirect effect, or dust-microphysical effect) ( Shi et al. 2014 , Fan et al. 2016 ). Generally, a layer of suspended dust heats the atmosphere within the layer and cools the

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Huimin Chen, Bingliang Zhuang, Jane Liu, Shu Li, Tijian Wang, Xiaodong Xie, Min Xie, Mengmeng Li, and Ming Zhao

et al. 2015 ; Zhuang et al. 2018 ) through affecting Earth’s radiation budget, which is referred to as the BC direct effect. According to both observation and simulation, BC reduces the incoming shortwave radiation that reaches the surface more effectively than scattering aerosols ( Forster et al. 2007 ; Boucher et al. 2013 ; Bond et al. 2013 ; Zhuang et al. 2014 ; Wang et al. 2015 ; K. Li et al. 2016 ). BC imposes a positive direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA

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B. L. Zhuang, S. Li, T. J. Wang, J. Liu, H. M. Chen, P. L. Chen, M. M. Li, and M. Xie

Coauthors , 2017 : MIX: A mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory under the international collaboration framework of the MICS-Asia and HTAP . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 17 , 935 – 963 , . 10.5194/acp-17-935-2017 Li , S. , T. Wang , B. Zhuang , and Y. Han , 2009 : Indirect radiative forcing and climatic effect of the anthropogenic nitrate aerosol on regional climate of China . Adv. Atmos. Sci. , 26 , 543 – 552 ,

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Angela Benedetti and Frédéric Vitart

( Boucher et al. 2013 ). The direct effect in cloud-free regions can be substantial and affect variables such as surface temperature, precipitation, and winds. The aerosol direct effect consists of the sum of two phenomena: scattering/absorption of incoming solar radiation and absorption/emission of longwave radiation. The radiative impact of aerosols is very dependent on their vertical distribution, chemical composition, and surrounding environment. For example, the impact of aerosols over high

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