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K. Gayatri, S. Patade, and T. V. Prabha

mostly to regional aspects. However, convective clusters embedded in more realistic large-scale conditions over a large area were not investigated. There are very few studies available over the Indian region on aerosol–cloud interaction that investigate the cloud particle size spectra. Extensive aircraft data over India suggested that the effect of aerosol loading and moisture modulates the drop size distribution, which in turn affects ice microphysical processes, especially the processes in the

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Ian B. Glenn, Graham Feingold, Jake J. Gristey, and Takanobu Yamaguchi

1. Introduction The radiative effect of the interactions between atmospheric aerosol and boundary layer clouds remains a large source of uncertainty in estimates of climate sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing (e.g., Boucher et al. 2013 ). Improving forecasts of the fraction of the sky covered by boundary layer clouds is also a priority for solar renewable energy applications ( Perez et al. 2016 ). The need for an improved understanding of aerosol–cloud–radiation variability is clear, but the

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Yangyang Song, Guoxing Chen, and Wei-Chyung Wang

distribution, and water solubility), but are also affected by the background climate settings like water vapor abundance and surface albedo. In particular, cloud adjustment effect, which includes both the aerosol–cloud microphysics interactions and the influences of meteorological changes, strongly depends on cloud types and atmospheric conditions ( Fan et al. 2016 ), while the resultant radiative impacts also depend on the altitude where cloud changes occur ( Stephens 2005 ). These complexities make

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Shin-Young Park and Cheol-Hee Kim

1. Introduction Aerosols have been well known to significantly impact the Earth–atmosphere system indirectly by altering cloud microphysics and precipitation; these effects are referred to as aerosol–cloud interactions or indirect effects ( Twomey 1977 ; Albrecht 1989 ; Pincus and Baker 1994 ; Haywood and Boucher 2000 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ). An increase in aerosol loading increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby creating numerous smaller cloud droplets and

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Chu-Chun Huang, Shu-Hua Chen, Yi-Chiu Lin, Kenneth Earl, Toshihisa Matsui, Hsiang-He Lee, I-Chun Tsai, Jen-Ping Chen, and Chao-Tzuen Cheng

other aerosols, the two major ways dust can alter ambient meteorological conditions, formation and development of cloud, and large-scale circulations are by interacting with 1) radiation (i.e., the dust–radiation interaction, dust-direct effect, or dust-radiative effect) and 2) clouds (i.e., the dust–cloud interaction, dust-indirect effect, or dust-microphysical effect) ( Shi et al. 2014 , Fan et al. 2016 ). Generally, a layer of suspended dust heats the atmosphere within the layer and cools the

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Chen Pan, Bin Zhu, Chenwei Fang, Hanqing Kang, Zhiming Kang, Hao Chen, Duanyang Liu, and Xuewei Hou

decrease precipitation in other regions over East China, but these precipitation changes are statistically insignificant. These previous studies have demonstrated that anthropogenic BC is a potential driver of changes in the East Asian atmospheric water cycle. Dong et al. (2019) pointed out that the relative roles of aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI; i.e., direct effect) and aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) of anthropogenic aerosols on the Asian climate change remain pendent. Therefore, one aim of

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Andrew M. Dzambo, Tristan L’Ecuyer, Ousmane O. Sy, and Simone Tanelli

, southeast Pacific, west Pacific, and northeast Atlantic. In these regions, StCu cloud decks are not influenced by a seasonal biomass-burning layer such as the one in the southeast Atlantic. The Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and Their Interactions (ORACLES) campaign, taking place over the southeast Atlantic Ocean from 2016 to 2018, has provided new and unique observations for assessing cloud and aerosol interactions. Over the course of the first two years of the experiment, 18 different

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Christopher S. Bretherton, Roger Marchand, Alain Protat, Paul J. DeMott, Simon P. Alexander, Greg C. Roberts, Cynthia H. Twohy, Darin Toohey, Steve Siems, Yi Huang, Robert Wood, Robert M. Rauber, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Jorgen Jensen, Jeffrey L. Stith, Jay Mace, Junshik Um, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter, Andrew Gettelman, Kevin J. Sanchez, Christina S. McCluskey, Lynn M. Russell, Isabel L. McCoy, Rachel L. Atlas, Charles G. Bardeen, Kathryn A. Moore, Thomas C. J. Hill, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Zoran Ristovski, Luke Cravigan, Robyn Schofield, Chris Fairall, Marc D. Mallet, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Bryan Rainwater, John D’Alessandro, Yang Wang, Wei Wu, Georges Saliba, Ezra J. T. Levin, Saisai Ding, Francisco Lang, Son C. H. Truong, Cory Wolff, Julie Haggerty, Mike J. Harvey, Andrew R. Klekociuk, and Adrian McDonald

; Zeng et al. 2012 ; Cho et al. 2015 ) remain a concern. Additional ground-based and airborne remote sensing, and airborne in situ measurements, are therefore needed to evaluate satellite retrievals. A 2014 community workshop at the University of Washington discussed these issues, recognizing the need for a large international multiagency effort to improve the understanding of clouds, aerosols, precipitation and their interactions over the SO ( Marchand et al. 2014 ). The workshop served as a

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

impacts on cloud radiative forcing from the meteorological effects in observations and poor parameterizations of convection and clouds in numerical simulations especially for large-scale models cause the largest uncertainty in current estimates of climate forcing, which resides in aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI) that are traditionally referred to as aerosol indirect effects ( IPCC 2013 ). How aerosols affect cloud properties and precipitation through ACI strongly varies among cloud types that are

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Yiquan Jiang, Xiu-Qun Yang, Xiaohong Liu, Yun Qian, Kai Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Fang Li, Yong Wang, and Zheng Lu

-emitted aerosols on climate have received more attention recently. The fire aerosols’ radiative effect (RE) and radiative forcing (RF) are estimated to quantify its impacts. RE represents the instantaneous radiative impact of atmospheric particles on Earth’s energy balance ( Heald et al. 2014 ), and RF is calculated as the change of RE between two different periods (e.g., preindustrial and present-day). The fire aerosols’ radiative effects/forcings could be due to aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI), aerosol–cloud

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