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Stuart A. Young
and
Mark A. Vaughan

level 2 data products from the lidar are the locations of atmospheric regions containing particulate matter (clouds and aerosols), the identification of these particles according to type, and profiles and layer integrals of particulate backscatter and extinction in these regions. This paper focuses on the fully automated retrieval of profiles of particulate backscatter and extinction. Note that the level 2 algorithms covered here are applied to measurements made by a single instrument (CALIOP

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Nae-Gang Heo
,
Jun-Hyung Lim
,
Jae-Won Lee
,
Joon-Soo Lee
,
Se-Jin Yook
, and
Kang-Ho Ahn

), a honeycomb section, a contraction section, a downstream section (i.e., a test chamber section), and a sirocco fan. The cross-sectional areas of the upstream and test sections were 600 mm × 600 mm and 120 mm × 120 mm, respectively. Particle-free airflow was induced into the wind tunnel by installing a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with a cross-sectional area of 600 mm × 600 mm at the inlet of the upstream section. The Arizona Test Dust A4 was aerosolized by using a solid aerosol

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Amy K. Huff
,
Shobha Kondragunta
,
Hai Zhang
,
Istvan Laszlo
,
Mi Zhou
,
Vanessa Caicedo
,
Ruben Delgado
, and
Robert Levy

1. Introduction Wildfires and prescribed fires release large amounts of smoke aerosols into the atmosphere ( Wiedinmyer et al. 2006 ; Akagi et al. 2011 ; Koplitz et al. 2018 ), which can degrade fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality and cause adverse health effects ( Sapkota et al. 2005 ; Rappold et al. 2011 ; Johnston et al. 2012 ). In particular, prescribed fires, which are controlled burns to support land management, have been shown to be substantial sources of PM 2.5 emissions

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Ansar Khan
,
Samiran Khorat
,
Rupali Khatun
,
Quang-Van Doan
,
U. S. Nair
, and
Dev Niyogi

values greater than 0.500 (boldface type) were set as the selection threshold. The VF1 contributes about 31.44% of the air pollutant data variation in the case of the prelockdown period. It has high loadings from three variables: PM 2.5 (0.844), PM 10 (0.891), and NH 3 (0.746). This factor can be interpreted as a measure of primary and secondary pollutants. As a secondary particulate precursor, NH 3 also contributes to the formation of particulate aerosols in the atmosphere. The VF1 highlights

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Virendra P. Ghate
,
Annmarie G. Carlton
,
Thomas Surleta
, and
Alyssa Marie Burns

Babila , J. E. , A. G. Carlton , C. J. Hennigan , and V. P. Ghate , 2020 : On aerosol liquid water and sulfate associations: The potential for fine particulate matter biases . Atmosphere , 11 , 194 , https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020194 . Carlton , A. G. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Synthesis of the Southeast Atmosphere Studies: Investigating fundamental atmospheric chemistry questions . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 99 , 547 – 567 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16

Open access
Zhongwei Huang
,
Qing Dong
,
Fanli Xue
,
Jing Qi
,
Xinrong Yu
,
Teruya Maki
,
Pengyue Du
,
Qianqing Gu
,
Shihan Tang
,
Jinsen Shi
,
Jianrong Bi
,
Tian Zhou
, and
Jianping Huang

material. Based on the fluorescence microscopic observations, the particles were classified into blue, yellow, white, and black. The blue and blue–green particles were DAPI-stained microbial cells (excitation light at a wavelength of 365 nm), the white particles were mineral particulate matter, and the black particles were black carbon ( Kepner and Pratt 1994 ; Maki et al. 2013 ). Yellow particles are thought to be DNA-free aerosols ( Kepner and Pratt 1994 ), while Mostajir et al. (1995) indicated

Open access
Armand Neukermans
,
Gary Cooper
,
Jack Foster
,
Lee Galbraith
, and
Sudhanshu Jain

necessary scale. Among the various forms of SRM, stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is considered the mechanism to most reliably cool the climate, and as such has been the focus of much SRM research to date ( National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2021 ). The focus on SAI stems in part because of the observational evidence for the climatic cooling effect created by sulfur-based particles that has followed past major volcanic eruptions ( Robock 2000 ). For SAI, both sulfate based

Open access
Jarred L. Burley
,
Steven T. Fiorino
,
Brannon J. Elmore
, and
Jaclyn E. Schmidt

constant aerosol concentration through the lowest 1250 m are shown by dashed lines. LEEDR-modeled absorption and scattering effects for the same vertical path and boundary layer aerosol concentration but applying an observed Dayton, Ohio, summer atmosphere at 1400 eastern daylight time 25 Jul 13 are shown with solid lines ( Fiorino et al. 2015 ). Coupling the boundary layer effects on atmospheric particulates (aerosols and hydrometeors) is accomplished internally within LEEDR. Molecular absorption

Open access
Seungkyu K. Hong
,
Sang-Boom Ryoo
,
Jinwon Kim
, and
Sang-Sam Lee

Meteorological Administration (KMA) employs the Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) ( In and Park 2003 ; Park et al. 2010 ; Park and In 2003 ) to forecast Asian dust events. The model has been used in various Asian dust studies: simulation of dry deposition of Asian dusts in EA ( Park et al. 2011 ; Lee et al. 2005 ), the effects of particulate matter (PM) assimilation on Asian dust forecasting ( Lee et al. 2013a ), and intercomparison of Asian dust simulations using ADAM2 and Lagrangian models ( Kim and

Open access
Hai Zhang
,
Zigang Wei
,
Barron H. Henderson
,
Susan C. Anenberg
,
Katelyn O’Dell
, and
Shobha Kondragunta

Heart Association . Circulation , 121 , 2331 – 2378 , https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1 . Burnett , R. T. , and Coauthors , 2014 : An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure . Environ. Health Perspect. , 122 , 397 – 403 , https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049 . Chu , Y. , and Coauthors , 2016 : A review on predicting ground PM 2.5 concentration using satellite aerosol optical depth

Open access