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William R. Moninger, Stanley G. Benjamin, Brian D. Jamison, Thomas W. Schlatter, Tracy Lorraine Smith, and Edward J. Szoke

1. Introduction As of late 2009, commercial aircraft provide more than 239 000 observations per day of wind and temperature aloft worldwide ( Fig. 1 ). The general term for these data is aircraft meteorological data reports (AMDAR). These data have been shown to improve both short- and long-term weather forecasts and have become increasingly important for regional and global numerical weather prediction ( Moninger et al. 2003 ). Figure 2 shows the AMDAR coverage over the contiguous United

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Frederick W. Nagle and Robert E. Holz

variety of satellite and aircraft measurements including imager, infrared sounder, microwave, and active sensors. Recent applications include combined sounder and imager retrievals using collocated Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) ( Aumann et al. 2003 ) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ( Justice et al. 1998 ) observations ( Li et al. 2005 ), and global comparisons of cloud detection and height between the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and MODIS

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R. Paul Lawson and Paquita Zuidema

1. Introduction This paper presents new observations on mixed-phase and all-ice Arctic clouds, achieved by applying analysis of two-dimensional particle probe imagery collected by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 research aircraft. The data were collected as part of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA)/First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment–Arctic Clouds Experiment (FIRE–ACE; Curry et al. 2000 ). The in situ

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Elizabeth R. Sanabia, Bradford S. Barrett, Nicholas P. Celone, and Zachary D. Cornelius

. Hurricane Rita was a rare case in which detailed finescale convective and wind structures were extensively observed throughout an ERC. Aircraft and dual Doppler radar observations ( Houze et al. 2006 , 2007 ; Bell et al. 2012 ) captured the temporal and spatial behavior both eyewalls during Rita and provided the opportunity for in-depth analysis. One of the objectives of the current study is to present a geostationary satellite-based technique that highlights the structural evolution of deep

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Eric P. James, Stanley G. Benjamin, and Brian D. Jamison

1. Introduction Numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems depend critically upon observations of the meteorological state of the atmosphere. Both in situ and remotely sensed observations can be useful, although vertical profile observations in the troposphere are considered particularly valuable (e.g., aircraft ascent/descent observations per James and Benjamin 2017 , hereinafter JB17 ). Atmospheric data assimilation is the mathematical process of blending information from an NWP model

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Brett T. Hoover, David A. Santek, Anne-Sophie Daloz, Yafang Zhong, Richard Dworak, Ralph A. Petersen, and Andrew Collard

1. Introduction Automated observations of wind and temperature from commercial aircraft have become a significant source of observations, especially since the establishment of the Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS; Petersen et al. 1992 ). Today, 39 participating airlines deploy more than 3500 aircraft under the World Meteorological Organization’s broader Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) program, delivering more than 680 000 wind and temperature reports daily

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Monica Górska, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Margaret A. LeMone, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

al. (2004) studied this process by combining aircraft and surface observations with mixed-layer modeling. They studied the influence of the boundary layer evolution on CO 2 diurnal variability, focusing in particular on CO 2 exchange at the interface and its relation to the boundary layer evolution. Entrainment of air with low CO 2 mixing ratios appeared to dominate CO 2 evolution in the morning hours, associated with the rapid growth of the ABL. However, in the afternoon the CO 2 uptake by

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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

seen near the centers of these intensifying tropical storms ( Figs. 17 and 18 ). Similar to the results of Dolling and Barnes (2014) , the largest pressure fall contributions were from ~2-km altitude. 6. Conclusions The aircraft observations from ITOP have revealed an important but previously underappreciated ingredient in TC genesis: namely, the subsidence warming within MCSs. The GPS dropsonde measurements from ITOP show that characteristic onion-shaped thermodynamic profiles are common in the

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Heiner Lange and Tijana Janjić

1. Introduction For more than two decades, operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) has benefited from aircraft observations. Typically transmitted by the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR; WMO 2003 ), the aircraft observations provide the data assimilation (DA) systems with in situ measurements of the important dynamical variables of temperature and wind ( Daley 1991 ). AMDAR data contain vertical profiles near airports and upper-air observations at flight level with cruising

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Katharine E. D. Wunsch and Anthony C. Didlake Jr.

propagation or ample rainband activity). The extent to which these evolving features become unambiguous indicators of SEF is not apparent in the current literature. The current study explores this problem by using storm composites to seek structural characteristics, both axisymmetric and asymmetric, that typify and help explain SEF processes. Building upon results from Sitkowski et al. (2011 , 2012 ), we composite aircraft reconnaissance 700-hPa-level observations from ERC events prior to and during the

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