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Vasubandhu Misra

Amazon, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and Venezuela. This region is hereafter referred as the EA and is outlined in Fig. 1a . Given the EA’s close proximity to the equator, the motivation for this paper is to understand if local processes, such as the diurnal variation, amplify the remote ENSO forcing. 2. Model description and data a. Model description The Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies (COLA) coupled climate model ( Misra et al. 2007 ; Misra and Marx 2007 ) is used in this study. Its

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Natalia Hasler and Roni Avissar

removing the soil wetness control on stomatal response. Werth and Avissar (2004) concluded that more ground observations were needed to evaluate which mechanisms best represent regional ET in the Amazon. Intense, short-term field campaigns of measurements of energy and water surface fluxes have been conducted since the early 1980s in the Amazonian rain forest ( Shuttleworth et al. 1984 ; Fitzjarrald et al. 1988 ; Roberts et al. 1993 ; Gash et al. 1996 ). Modeling has been used to extrapolate these

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Paulo Nobre, Marta Malagutti, Domingos F. Urbano, Roberto A. F. de Almeida, and Emanuel Giarolla

1. Introduction Several studies have investigated the effects of Amazon deforestation on regional climate variability and change (e.g., Henderson-Sellers and Gornitz 1984 ; Nobre et al. 1991 ; Zeng et al. 1996 ; Werth and Avissar 2002 ; Voldoire and Royer 2005 ; Schneider et al. 2006 ). Although the conclusions of such studies are dependent on a number of parameterized processes [e.g., convection schemes on atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs)], there is a general agreement that

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Arindam Samanta, Sangram Ganguly, Eric Vermote, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Ranga B. Myneni

at seasonal ( Ferreira and Huete 2004 ) to interannual time scales ( Asner et al. 2000 ; Gurgel and Ferreira 2003 ; Dessay et al. 2004 ) in the Amazon. The shortcomings of the AVHRR NDVI data—calibration degradation, loss of orbit, lack of satisfactory atmospheric correction, broad spectral bands, saturation in dense vegetation, insufficient validation, etc.—are for the most part remedied in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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Carlos M. Souza Jr., Dar A. Roberts, and AndréL. Monteiro

1. Introduction Selective logging, fragmentation, and forest burning are the main factors contributing to forest degradation of the Brazilian Amazon. The major impacts of these anthropogenic disturbances include decreasing forest biomass ( Cochrane and Schulze 1999 ; Gerwing 2002 ), creating favorable environments for nonnative species ( Vidal et al. 1997 ), and causing local species extinctions ( Martini et al. 1994 ). It has been estimated through field surveys and socioeconomic interviews

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Amy Ffield

southernmost oceanic conditions experienced by more than half of all Atlantic hurricanes just prior to reaching the Caribbean Sea: 1) the spreading of freshwater discharges from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers out into the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and 2) the periodic movement of North Brazil Current (NBC) rings through the river plumes. At the sea surface the freshwater discharges from the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers spread outward, forming extensive low-salinity plumes. The ∼0.2 × 10 6 m 3 s −1

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Hanan N. Karam and Rafael L. Bras

1. Background and motivation The hydrologic cycle of the Amazon Basin has global importance. It sustains the largest tropical rain forest worldwide, which provides habitat to a huge diversity of species and significantly impacts the balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Furthermore, it influences hydrometeorological dynamics in neighboring and remote areas. At the continental scale, the Amazon Basin supplies moisture to the La Plata watershed by means of a low-level jet east of the Andes

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Douglas C. Morton, Ruth S. DeFries, Yosio E. Shimabukuro, Liana O. Anderson, Fernando Del Bon Espírito-Santo, Matthew Hansen, and Mark Carroll

cattle ranching and mechanized agriculture are important drivers of consistently high rates of forest clearing in the Legal Amazon ( Laurence et al. 2004 ). Annual estimates of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, derived from high-resolution satellite data, require the processing and storing of large quantities of data. The Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) analyzes more than 220 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes each year to provide annual high-resolution mapping of deforestation

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J. E. Jack Reeves Eyre and Xubin Zeng

) and even societies ( Kuper and Kröpelin 2006 ). Climate change and deforestation have raised fears that the water cycle (and, with it, the carbon cycle) of the Amazon basin may undergo similar widespread change in the coming decades ( Nobre et al. 2016 ), with regional and potentially global consequences. To understand if, when, and how such changes could occur requires accurate knowledge of the current state and past variability of water cycle processes. In this paper we investigate the ability

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Eliane Barbosa Santos, Paulo Sérgio Lucio, and Cláudio Moisés Santos e Silva

1. Introduction In tropical regions, particularly in the case of the Amazon region, the spatiotemporal variation of meteorological attributes, especially rainfall, is related to the performance of meteorological phenomena at different scales, modulated by ocean–atmosphere mechanisms, which produce total rainfall above and/or below the climatological average. In the Brazilian Amazon, most of the annual rainfall occurs between the austral summer and austral autumn seasons. The highest values

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