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Sun-Seon Lee, June-Yi Lee, Kyung-Ja Ha, Bin Wang, Akio Kitoh, Yoshiyuki Kajikawa, and Manabu Abe

significant at a 95% confidence level. b. Subseasonal variation In the annual cycle, PST activity exhibits double peaks in late fall and early spring, but the AST activity shows a single peak in midwinter (e.g., Nakamura 1992 ; Lee et al. 2011 ). Since the TP effect on the jet stream and storm-track activity is larger over the North Pacific than over the North Atlantic, the subseasonal variability of PST activity is focused ( Fig. 8 ). The MRI-CGCM is capable of reproducing the double peaks and the

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Jing Gao, You He, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, and Tandong Yao

a teleconnection with ENSO. However, the exact mechanisms by which ENSO impacts the isotopic composition of precipitation in the southern TP were not previously identified. The goals of this paper are to detect the possible impact of ENSO on the precipitation stable isotopes in the southern TP and to explore the mechanisms that drive the annual variation of precipitation stable isotopes in this region. Our study uses 10-yr event-based observations at Lhasa (29.70°N, 91.13°E; 3658 m) and the ENSO

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Ricardo C. Nogueira and Barry D. Keim

-mitigating rains (e.g., Hurricanes Katrina and Rita across Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi in 2005). As a result, this paper will address the effects of Atlantic TC rainfall (including storms in the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico) in the eastern United States. Tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic experiences great variability from the intra-annual (e.g., Keim and Robbins 2006 ), interannual (e.g., Bove et al. 1998 ), and interdecadal ( Gray 2007 ; Landsea et al. 1999 ) time scales. Clearly, no two

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Nathan Paldor

1. Introduction Annual rainfall records at a single station have large variations that are sometimes larger than the mean annual rainfall so that the coefficient of variation exceeds 100% (e.g., Sumner 1988 ). Even over continental areas where data from many (i.e., several hundred) stations are averaged, the variations in adjacent 30-yr windows can be as high as 25% ( Hulme and New 1997 ). Other studies have shown that high variability of annual rainfall records exists regardless of location

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Tong Guo and Yanhong Tang

meteorological stations in the Qinghai and Tibet Provinces to address the following questions: 1) How have the intra-annual variabilities of daily precipitation and temperature changed over recent decades? 2) Do altitudinal variations affect intra- and interannual variabilities of daily precipitation and temperature? 3) What is the relationship between the mean annual precipitation/temperature and the corresponding intra/interannual variabilities? 2. Method We studied the QTP because the alpine ecosystems

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Tsing-Chang Chen, Wan-Ru Huang, and Eugene S. Takle

maximum. Since precipitation is coupled with convection, maximum centers of the annual precipitation component coincide with minimum centers of the annual OLR component and the minimum centers of annual precipitation component with maximum centers of annual OLR. Thus, the positive centers of the annual precipitation component over the three tropical continents in the summer hemisphere are maintained by the convergence of water vapor flux, and the negative centers of the annual precipitation variation

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Thomas M. Smith, Phillip A. Arkin, Mathew R. P. Sapiano, and Ching-Yee Chang

fields of SST and SLP anomalies to precipitation anomalies [ Smith et al. (2009a) ; also see Barnett and Preisendorfer (1987) for a description of CCA]. The SST and SLP anomalies have been reconstructed over oceanic regions and are historically better sampled than precipitation. Relationships for the CCA are developed using a satellite-based precipitation analysis over the satellite era. Since this reconstruction was intended to resolve large-scale multidecadal variations, annual precipitation

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Takaaki Yokoi, Tomoki Tozuka, and Toshio Yamagata

vertical. 3. Seasonal variation a. Results from the OGCM Figure 2 shows the annual mean temperature at a depth of about 100 m, whereas Fig. 3 shows the zonal and meridional cross sections of temperature near the core of the dome. As shown in Fig. 2 , the OGCM is successful in reproducing the location of the SD. However, the simulated core temperature is about 4°C colder than that of the observation and assimilation data. This cold bias also exists throughout the tropical Indian Ocean, and it is

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Brant Liebmann, Ileana Bladé, George N. Kiladis, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Gabriel B. Senay, Dave Allured, Stephanie Leroux, and Chris Funk

(shaded), TRMM precipitation (contour interval 4 mm day −1 ), and 30-day high-pass 850-hPa wind vectors relative to onset of the March–June wet season at 3.5°N, 41.5°E (dot). Fig . 18. As in Fig. 17 but for the September–December wet season. 5. Summary and discussion The motivation of this study was to document annual mean precipitation, seasonal variations, and wet season characteristics, focusing on onset over the entire African continent, using a consistent methodology and complete global dataset

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Alexander P. Trishchenko and Shusen Wang

.1080/01431160802348119 . 10.1080/01431160802348119 Trishchenko , A. P. , S. Leblanc , S. Wang , J. Li , C. Ungureanu , Y. Lu , K. V. Khlopenkov , and F. Fontana , 2016 : Variations of annual minimum snow and ice extent over Canada and neighboring landmass derived from MODIS 250-m imagery for 2000–2014 . Can. J. Remote Sens. , 42 , 214 – 242 , . 10.1080/07038992.2016.1166043 Wessel , P. , and W. H. F. Smith , 1996 : A global self

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