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Julien P. Nicolas and David H. Bromwich

1. Introduction Antarctica is the coldest and driest continent on Earth. While high elevations, the prolonged absence of sun, and the high albedo of the ice surface account for low temperatures, and reduced precipitation through the very low moisture-holding capacity of the air, these features also result from limited ocean influence over most of the ice sheet. Indeed, its steep coastal topography is an effective barrier for the depressions that develop and move over the Southern Ocean and

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Kazuya Kusahara and Kay I. Ohshima

spectral peak is caused by the surface air pressure–driven, wavenumber-1 Kelvin wave around Antarctica. Furthermore, they calculated the phase relationship among three bottom pressure gauges in the Southern Ocean and showed that the phase difference among the gauges is explained by westward propagation of the wavenumber-1 Kelvin wave. To our knowledge, only Ponte and Hirose (2004) offered the observational evidence of the external Kelvin wave around Antarctica. In principle, higher-wavenumber Kelvin

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Yann Michel and Thomas Auligné

that can be partly explained through the katabatic wind theory ( Ball 1956 ; Pettré et al. 1990 ; Parish and Cassano 2003 ). These surface winds probably induce larger-scale convergence in the troposphere ( King and Turner 1997 ). Wind barrier effects are also frequently reported in case studies. Therefore, limited area modeling may be seen as having potential for complementing global forecasts with higher resolution and physics adaptation to Antarctica. The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System

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Aurélie Bouchard, Florence Rabier, Vincent Guidard, and Fatima Karbou

the 1980s ( Semane 2008 ), ozone depletion is a key feature of today’s Antarctica. It is governed by the atmospheric temperature and dynamical processes such as transport (Brewer–Dobson stratospheric circulation) and mixing. For both issues of climate change and of ozone destruction, an accurate knowledge of the atmosphere over Antarctica is required. The fourth International Polar Year (IPY), organized through the International Council for Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization

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Lejiang Yu and Shiyuan Zhong

average of 29 mm of snow-water equivalent over Antarctica, which accounts for about 20% of its annual precipitation, is removed by blowing snow. Anomalous northerly and westerly wind events over the Amundsen Sea Embayment are favorable for the thinning of ice shelves there from above and below, respectively ( Deb et al. 2018 ). Le Quéré et al. (2007) noted that an observed increase in Southern Ocean winds has weakened the ability of the ocean to act as a sink for CO 2 . While in general SWEs are

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Gregory J. Hakim, Karin A. Bumbaco, Robert Tardif, and Jordan G. Powers

(NWP) and input for operational meteorologists’ forecasts. Short- to medium-range forecasts, for example, are critical in flight planning and guidance for air and ground operations, all of which impact project schedules and outcomes (e.g., Powers et al. 2003 , 2012 ). A majority of the current weather stations over Antarctica are maintained by the University of Wisconsin’s Antarctic Meteorological Research Center, but even when combined with observing sites from other countries, the monitoring

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Shelley L. Knuth and John J. Cassano

1. Introduction Since the early 1900s, when Robert Falcon Scott’s Northern Party spent an unfortunate winter on Inexpressible Island, the Terra Nova Bay region of Antarctica has been recognized as an area of harsh winds and brutally cold temperatures. These meteorological extremes make this a region where scientific research is both difficult to conduct and of great importance. The severe winds, caused by offshore downslope flow through nearby mountain valleys, transport sea ice eastward from

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Daniel F. Steinhoff, David H. Bromwich, Michelle Lambertson, Shelley L. Knuth, and Matthew A. Lazzara

1. Introduction During 15–16 May 2004, a severe windstorm struck McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Official observations are lacking because the anemometer was blown away; however, observations from McMurdo Building 71 recorded a maximum wind speed of 71.5 m s −1 and sustained wind speeds of 35–50 m s −1 between 1800 UTC 15 May and 0000 UTC 16 May ( Dalrymple 2004 ). Observations from nearby Arrival Heights and Black Island recorded maximum speeds of 84 and 64 m s −1 , respectively, and sustained

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Penny M. Rowe, Larry M. Miloshevich, David D. Turner, and Von P. Walden

, Antarctica, during the austral summers of January 2003 and December 2003–January 2004 in support of ground-based validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS; Walden et al. 2005 , 2006 ; Gettelman et al. 2006 ). The infrared radiances were measured from a near-surface height (mostly from a tower at an elevation of 24 m) with the Polar Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (Polar AERI, or PAERI). As part of the field experiment, Vaisala RS90 radiosondes were launched in the afternoon and

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Lana Cohen, Sam Dean, and James Renwick

qualitatively and quantitatively, through analysis of paleoclimate proxies ( Lorrey et al. 2007 ), biological systems ( Renwick et al. 1998 ), and glacier mass balance ( Purdie et al. 2011 ). This study uses Kidson’s synoptic classification techniques and applies it to the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. While much work has been done to understand both past and present Antarctic climate using snow and ice reconstructions, station data, satellite and reanalysis data, and climate models, less has been done on

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