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Kenneth L. Pryor

transportation accidents and fatal general aviation accidents due to downbursts within the last decade warrants the ongoing development and refinement of techniques and products designed for the short-term prediction of downburst potential. Downburst potential products derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-13–15 ( GOES-13 – 15 ) sounder data have been developed and evaluated. This study entails recent modification, validation, and application of an algorithm that capitalizes on

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Ethan Gutmann
,
Idar Barstad
,
Martyn Clark
,
Jeffrey Arnold
, and
Roy Rasmussen

1. Introduction The sophistication of modern weather and regional climate models has enabled many scientific advancements; however, this sophistication comes with a cost of added complexity, which has hindered their application in studies of more than a small number of simulations in relatively small domains. In particular, more complex models are extremely computationally expensive, thus limiting the number, duration, resolution, and spatial domain of simulations performed with such models

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Xianyao Chen
,
Meng Wang
,
Yuanling Zhang
,
Ying Feng
,
Zhaohua Wu
, and
Norden E. Huang

://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/greenwch/spot_num.txt . (b) IMFs of sunspot numbers time series. The fourth IMF is the solar cycle with mean period about 11 yr. First three IMFs are of high-frequency and the last IMF low-frequency variability. (c) SWMF of IMFs 1–4 of sunspot numbers time series. The blue line is SWMF of solar cycle. b. Sea surface temperature The next application of the FRT method is to study the characteristics of the background noise of remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST) provided by the Advanced Microwave Scanning

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Rod Frehlich
and
Robert Sharman

with some results using this procedure. The remainder of the paper presents some applications of the technique. Section 5 provides an application of the estimated local turbulence intensities to produce estimates of sampling error or “error of representativeness” of rawinsonde wind and temperature measurements. This provides a more accurate description of total observation error statistics ( section 6 ), which can be used for optimal data assimilation and for improving ensemble forecasts based on

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Scott Steinschneider
and
Upmanu Lall

paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the mathematical formulation and computational implementation of AA. Details of the case study, comparative analysis, and trend analysis are presented in section 3 . Results are presented in section 4 , and the paper concludes in section 5 with a discussion of the limitations of the study and potential further applications of AA. 2. Archetypal analysis a. Mathematical formulation Consider an m × n matrix = { x 1,1 , …, x m , n

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O. Kipkogei
,
A. M. Mwanthi
,
J. B. Mwesigwa
,
Z. K. K. Atheru
,
M. A. Wanzala
, and
G. Artan

and Chen 2003 ), as well as secondary effects resulting from tropical cyclone activities ( Shanko and Camberlin 1998 ), among other factors. Since 1998, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) has been spearheading the generation of regional seasonal forecasts for the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA). The forecasts are an output of the GHA Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF) process and are developed as a consensus product with the National

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Rebecca E. Morss
,
Julie L. Demuth
,
Jeffrey K. Lazo
,
Katherine Dickinson
,
Heather Lazrus
, and
Betty H. Morrow

. , and Lazo J. K. , 2012 : Creation and communication of hurricane risk information . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 93 , 1133 – 1145 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00150.1 . DeVellis, R. F. , 2012 : Scale Development: Theory and Applications . Sage Publications, 205 pp . Douglas, M. , 1970 : Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology . Barrie and Rockliff, 177 pp . Douglas, M. , and Wildavsky A. , 1982 : Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers

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G. Louis Smith
,
D. K. Pandey
,
Robert B. Lee III
,
Bruce R. Barkstrom
, and
Kory J. Priestley

be low as it scans onto the limb. Finally, as the instrument scans from a cold bright cloud to a warm dark surface, the transient will cause a loss in sharpness of the change. In this paper we discuss a numerical filter for the removal of this transient from the measurements. In order to remove this spurious signal, it is necessary to characterize its behavior, which is defined by two constants. A method for deriving these constants from the data is developed. Finally, results of application of

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Takuro Matsuta
and
Yukio Masumoto

kinetic energy, mean available potential energy, EKE, and eddy available potential energy, with quantitative assessment of barotropic and baroclinic instabilities. A remarkable advantage of this diagram and the associated energy estimate formulae is their simplicity, yielding straightforward implementation of the formulae for an analysis of outputs from ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). The Lorentz diagram, however, is originally intended to be used for global mean condition. An application of

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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara
and
Ross N. Hoffman

scales that are used for a wide range of short- and medium-term warnings, long-term forecasting, and other climate, space weather, ocean, terrestrial weather, and water cycle applications that are critical to the Earth system user community and society in general. Space agencies around the globe have well-established plans to deploy and exploit Earth-observing satellites for the next two decades (e.g., Simmons et al. 2016 ). In parallel to these plans, and because of the lengthy processes that

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