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Tsing-Chang Chen, Jenq-Dar Tsay, and Ming-Chang Yen

. 1. (a) Life cycle of the Southeast/East Asia summer monsoon [active phase (1 May–15 Jun), break phase (15 Jun–15 Jul), and revival phase (16 Jul–15 Sep)], depicted with the climatological 15-day-mean rainfall for Taiwan from April to October (adopted from Chen et al. 2004 ) and (b) the rainfall in Taiwan produced by different weather systems (including diurnal variations, typhoons, rainstorms, and fronts) for different phases of the summer monsoon life cycle (adopted from Chen et al. 2011

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Lin Wang, Wen Chen, Wen Zhou, and Ronghui Huang

1. Introduction As one of the most active components in the global climate system, the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is an important climate feature over East Asia in boreal winter, and exerts large social and economic impacts on many East Asian countries (e.g., Lau and Li 1984 ; Ding 1994 ; Chen et al. 2000 ; Wang et al. 2000 ; Huang et al. 2003 ). Besides, it may cause deep convection over the Maritime Continent through the intrusion of cold air (cold surge) into the tropics ( Chang

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Chao He and Wen Zhou

1. Introduction In East Asia, more than half of the annual precipitation occurs during boreal summer when the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) prevails. The southerly wind in the lower troposphere is an essential feature of EASM circulation, and it transports water vapor from the tropical ocean into East Asia, where it is converted into precipitation over China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). The EASM features substantial variability, and the East Asian rainband shifts

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Hiroshi Kobayashi, Kimio Arao, Toshiyuki Murayama, Kengo Iokibe, Ryuji Koga, and Masataka Shiobara

possible only for the water-insoluble particles (WIPs). The chemical elements of Asian dust, excluding oxygen, mainly comprise Si, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Ti, which are all water-insoluble with the exception of Ca ( Kanamori et al. 1991 ). For the Asian dust phenomenon at Yakushima Island during spring 1989, the total mass concentration of the water-insoluble chemical elements was about 4 times that of water-soluble Ca ( Kanamori et al. 1991 ). Therefore, we consider the mineral dust to be composed of

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Huaqiong Cheng, Tongwen Wu, and Wenjie Dong

1. Introduction As a major component of the global climate system the Asian summer monsoon has a profound social and economic impact. Of particular concern to society are hydrologic disasters, such as floods and severe droughts, which are often connected with abnormal monsoons. The Asian summer monsoon is a complex phenomenon and is commonly divided into two major subsystems, that is, the Indian monsoon system and the East Asian monsoon system ( Tao and Chen 1987 ). In nature, “monsoon” refers

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Nagio Hirota, Mai Ohta, Yousuke Yamashita, and Masaaki Takahashi

1. Introduction The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) refers to large-scale atmospheric circulations primarily driven by differential heating between the land and sea (e.g., Zhang et al. 1997 ). The Siberian high and the Aleutian low are located over the colder Eurasian continent and the warmer Pacific Ocean, respectively. The zonal pressure gradients between these pressure systems balance via geostrophic northwesterlies from Siberia to East Asia around 30°N. In addition, a low-pressure center

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Weihua Yuan, Rucong Yu, Minghua Zhang, Wuyin Lin, Haoming Chen, and Jian Li

1. Introduction Previous studies have shown that the complex topographic effect can result in distinctive—even unique—climate features over subtropical East Asia, such as the largest midlevel cloud cover of continental stratus in early spring ( Yu et al. 2004 ) and the distinct mei-yu frontal zone during summer monsoon season ( Ding 1992 ). Diurnal variability of rainfall is also an important aspect of regional climate ( Yang and Slingo 2001 ) and has been extensively studied for several

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Dabang Jiang and Xianmei Lang

1. Introduction A variety of climate states and events have been recorded in the earth’s history. Insights into the facts and mechanisms of past climate and environmental change are essential for understanding present and future climate change. In the geosciences, a central issue in the field of paleoclimatology is the accurate reconstruction of changes in the East Asian monsoon at a range of time scales and seeking reasons for these changes through the use of proxy data and physically based

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Young-Kwon Lim and Kwang-Yul Kim

1. Introduction The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the most important factors governing the interannual variation of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM). The relationship between ENSO and the ASM has been studied more actively than other aspects of the ASM variations ( Joseph et al. 1994 ; Chen and Yen 1994 ; Ju and Slingo 1995 ; Li and Yanai 1996 ; Goswami 1998 ; Meehl and Arblaster 1998 ; Torrence and Webster 1999 ; Lau and Nath 2000 ; Wang et al. 2001 ; Lau and Wu 2001

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Pingping Xie, Mingyue Chen, Song Yang, Akiyo Yatagai, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Yoshihiro Fukushima, and Changming Liu

constructed on a regional basis. Up to now, such regional analyses are generated and published for North America ( Higgins et al. 2000 ), part of South America ( Shi et al. 2001 ), Australia ( Weymouth et al. 1999 ), and several portions of Europe (e.g., Frei and Schär 1998 ; Rubel and Hantel 2001 ). Accurate documentation of precipitation over East Asia is of essential importance to improved understanding of hydrometeorological processes and their long-term variations ( Liu and Zheng 2004 ). A gauge

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