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Chao He
and
Wen Zhou

1. Introduction In East Asia, more than half of the annual precipitation occurs during boreal summer when the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) prevails. The southerly wind in the lower troposphere is an essential feature of EASM circulation, and it transports water vapor from the tropical ocean into East Asia, where it is converted into precipitation over China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). The EASM features substantial variability, and the East Asian rainband shifts

Free access
Tsing-Chang Chen
,
Jenq-Dar Tsay
, and
Ming-Chang Yen

. 1. (a) Life cycle of the Southeast/East Asia summer monsoon [active phase (1 May–15 Jun), break phase (15 Jun–15 Jul), and revival phase (16 Jul–15 Sep)], depicted with the climatological 15-day-mean rainfall for Taiwan from April to October (adopted from Chen et al. 2004 ) and (b) the rainfall in Taiwan produced by different weather systems (including diurnal variations, typhoons, rainstorms, and fronts) for different phases of the summer monsoon life cycle (adopted from Chen et al. 2011

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Dabang Jiang
and
Xianmei Lang

1. Introduction A variety of climate states and events have been recorded in the earth’s history. Insights into the facts and mechanisms of past climate and environmental change are essential for understanding present and future climate change. In the geosciences, a central issue in the field of paleoclimatology is the accurate reconstruction of changes in the East Asian monsoon at a range of time scales and seeking reasons for these changes through the use of proxy data and physically based

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Huiling Ouyang
,
Xu Tang
,
Rajesh Kumar
,
Renhe Zhang
,
Guy Brasseur
,
Ben Churchill
,
Mozaharul Alam
,
Haidong Kan
,
Hong Liao
,
Tong Zhu
,
Emily Ying Yang Chan
,
Ranjeet Sokhi
,
Jiacan Yuan
,
Alexander Baklanov
,
Jianmin Chen
, and
Maria Katherina Patdu

countries ( WHO 2021b ). Table 1. Comparison between WHO 2005 and 2021 Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) (source: WHO 2021b ). At present, air pollution is most severe in developing countries, which accounted for 91% of the global premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution ( WHO 2021c ). According to the estimation provided by Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, the deaths attributed to air pollution ranked the highest in the Asian Region ( Fig. 1 ). More than two-thirds of

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Toru Terao
,
Shinjiro Kanae
,
Hatsuki Fujinami
,
Someshwar Das
,
A. P. Dimri
,
Subashisa Dutta
,
Koji Fujita
,
Azusa Fukushima
,
Kyung-Ja Ha
,
Masafumi Hirose
,
Jinkyu Hong
,
Hideyuki Kamimera
,
Rijan Bhakta Kayastha
,
Masashi Kiguchi
,
Kazuyoshi Kikuchi
,
Hyun Mee Kim
,
Akio Kitoh
,
Hisayuki Kubota
,
Weiqiang Ma
,
Yaoming Ma
,
Milind Mujumdar
,
Masato I. Nodzu
,
Tomonori Sato
,
Z. Su
,
Shiori Sugimoto
,
Hiroshi G. Takahashi
,
Yuhei Takaya
,
Shuyu Wang
,
Kun Yang
,
Satoru Yokoi
,
Peter van Oevelen,
, and
Jun Matsumoto

Asian terrestrial precipitation, a prominent component of the global water and energy cycles, is an important driver of general atmospheric circulation ( Chang et al. 2017 , 2018 ) and supports more than 4 billion people who have developed diverse lives and cultures. Under the tropical and monsoon Asian climate, Asian precipitation is characterized by considerably diversified spatiotemporal patterns from arid to the wettest weather. It ranges across a wide spectrum of climates, including

Open access
Hoffman H. N. Cheung
and
Wen Zhou

the semipermanent features of the East Asian winter climate (e.g., Ding 1994 ; Chang et al. 2006 ). When UB decays, the strengthened SH breaks down and triggers a severe cold air outbreak in East Asia ( Tao 1957 ; Cheung et al. 2013b ). This may bring intense cold air masses to densely populated areas of the East Asian continent. If UB persists or recurs for a prolonged period, it may trigger extremely long-lasting cold weather in the region, such as the severe snowstorm in southern China as

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Hoffman H. N. Cheung
and
Wen Zhou

change or a slight increase over the Ural Mountains ( Dunn-Sigouin and Son 2013 ; Masato et al. 2013 ). Yet, there have been limited studies analyzing the implications of blocking for the present and future regional climate ( Masato et al. 2014 ; Woollings et al. 2014 ). The objective of our work is to systematically evaluate the impact of wintertime UB on the East Asian winter climate. In Part I of this work ( Cheung and Zhou 2015 , hereinafter Part I ), we demonstrated the ability of 25 GCMs

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Kaiming Hu
,
Gang Huang
,
Xiao-Tong Zheng
,
Shang-Ping Xie
,
Xia Qu
,
Yan Du
, and
Lin Liu

1. Introduction Summer is the major rainy season for the subtropical northwest Pacific (NWP) and East Asia (EA). Climate variability during summer is of great socioeconomic importance for populated regions of East Asia. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important factor for summertime climate variability in the subtropical NWP–EA ( Huang and Wu 1989 ). In summer following an El Niño event, precipitation tends to decrease in the subtropical NWP and increase over eastern China and Japan

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Lin Wang
,
Wen Chen
,
Wen Zhou
, and
Ronghui Huang

1. Introduction As one of the most active components in the global climate system, the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is an important climate feature over East Asia in boreal winter, and exerts large social and economic impacts on many East Asian countries (e.g., Lau and Li 1984 ; Ding 1994 ; Chen et al. 2000 ; Wang et al. 2000 ; Huang et al. 2003 ). Besides, it may cause deep convection over the Maritime Continent through the intrusion of cold air (cold surge) into the tropics ( Chang

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Xinyue Hao
,
Yiquan Jiang
,
Xiu-Qun Yang
,
Xiaohong Liu
,
Yang Zhang
,
Minghuai Wang
,
Yuan Liang
, and
Yong Wang

1. Introduction East Asia and South Asia are the most polluted regions of Eurasian continent ( Fig. 1 ) due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, and other human activities ( Li et al. 2016 ). The air pollution variations of these two regions are quite different in recent decades ( Samset et al. 2019 ; Ratnam et al. 2021 ). The aerosol emission keeps increasing over South Asia ( Lu et al. 2011 ), but it has started to level off over East Asia recently due to the clean-air policy of

Open access