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Laifang Li, M. Susan Lozier, and Martha W. Buckley

1. Introduction The Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) is a mode of basinwide sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the North Atlantic Ocean with pronounced signals at decadal-to-multidecadal time scales ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ; Kerr 2000 ). The AMV significantly affects global and regional climate [see review by Zhang et al. (2019) ] through its impact on the global-mean temperature ( Ting et al. 2009 ), the position of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone

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J. S. Kenigson and M.-L. Timmermans

1. Introduction a. The Nordic seas in the climate system The Nordic seas (i.e., Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas; Fig. 1 ), a transitional region between the Arctic Ocean north of Fram Strait and the North Atlantic Ocean, are a site of key climate processes. Deep convective mixing, a driver of the thermohaline circulation, takes place in the Nordic seas where wintertime air–sea heat fluxes destabilize the stratification and produce deep mixed layers ( Nilsen and Falck 2006 ); further

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Xiaoming Zhai and Luke Sheldon

1. Introduction Warming of the North Atlantic over the past 50 years has not been uniform (e.g., Levitus et al. 2000 , 2005a ; Lozier et al. 2008 ). For example, using data from hydrographic stations, Lozier et al. (2008) found in the North Atlantic that the tropics and subtropics have warmed but the subpolar ocean has cooled (see also Levitus et al. 2000 ). These observations suggest that, instead of a diffusive process from the surface, ocean heat content change is largely a consequence

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Min Zhang, Zhaohua Wu, and Fangli Qiao

, leading to the upper oceans of larger depth to uptake surface heat ( Liu et al. 2016 ). The other focuses on the vertical heat redistributing to the deeper oceans on decadal or multidecadal time scales ( Meehl et al. 2011 ; Chen and Tung 2014 ). It was calculated that the surface warming hiatus has been accompanied by more than 30% of the total increment of ocean heat content in deep oceans below 750 m in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans and below 300 m in the Pacific and Indian Oceans ( Meehl et al

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Stefano Berti, Francisco Alves Dos Santos, Guglielmo Lacorata, and Angelo Vulpiani

. In past years, an amount of Lagrangian data about the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) was collected thanks to the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE) drifters, released following the major shipping lines; the Southern Ocean Studies (SOS) drifters, deployed in the Brazil–Malvinas Confluence (BMC); and the Programa Nacional de Bóias (PNBOIA) drifters [Brazilian contribution to the Global Oceans Observing System (GOOS)], released in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight

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M. Benkiran and E. Greiner

Atlantic from Mercator Océan. This system assimilates both in situ (temperature and salinity) and satellite data (sea level and sea surface temperature) in a multivariate way. Hence, the extrapolation over undetermined variables is less a problem here, and the paper focuses on the control of the spinup effects and the systematic biases. To this purpose, a new variant of the IAU with two sharp time weighting functions is introduced. This system is described in section 2 . The assimilation cycling

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Haijun Yang and Lu Wang

the North Pacific ( Zhang et al. 1996 ; Lau 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1998 ; Wang 2002 ), North tropical Atlantic ( Enfield and Mayer 1997 ), North Atlantic ( Hoerling et al. 2001 ; Lu et al. 2004 ), and Indian Oceans ( Yu and Rienecker 1999 ) on interannual to decadal time scales. The extratropical climate can also affect the tropics through both the atmospheric bridge and oceanic tunnel ( Gu and Philander 1997 ; Kleeman et al. 1999 ; Barnett et al. 1999 ; Pierce et al. 2000 ), generating

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Rowan T. Sutton and Daniel L. R. Hodson

1. Introduction Because of its large heat capacity and slow movement the ocean plays a central role in low-frequency climate variability. The role of the Atlantic Ocean is of particular interest because the North Atlantic is host to one of the few regions of deep-water formation on the planet, and therefore plays a vital role in the overturning circulation, which is responsible for a large fraction of the poleward heat transport accomplished by the oceans. There is evidence from palaeoclimate

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Shenfu Dong, Susan L. Hautala, and Kathryn A. Kelly

western North Atlantic Ocean is the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW), a vertically homogeneous water mass between the seasonal thermocline and the permanent thermocline. The STMW is formed by deep convection just south of the Gulf Stream (GS) during winter and contains the memory of its interaction with the atmosphere. After its formation, the STMW is advected by the GS and its recirculation gyre. The net heat loss to the atmosphere has been considered an important factor for forming and sustaining the

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Ed Hawkins and Rowan Sutton

), only consider the changes in radiative forcings. The potential for enhanced skill has led to the design of decadal climate prediction systems that initialize climate forecasts from the observed ocean state (e.g., Smith et al. 2007 ; Keenlyside et al. 2008 ; Pohlmann et al. 2009 ). Initialized forecasts also offer a new way of testing and validating climate models, and a multimodel intercomparison is planned for the next IPCC report ( Meehl et al. 2009 ). The Atlantic Ocean is of particular

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