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Xianyao Chen and John M. Wallace

oscillator” ( Cane and Zebiak 1985 ; Zebiak and Cane 1987 ; Battisti and Hirst 1989 ) or, alternatively, they may be stochastically forced, through the action of anomalous energy fluxes at the atmosphere–ocean interface that project upon the optimal initial structure that is conducive to the growth of ENSO-like SST anomalies ( Penland and Sardeshmukh 1995 ; Newman 2007 ). There is evidence that the relative importance of these mechanisms is frequency dependent. For example, in statistics derived from

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Alex O. Gonzalez, Christopher J. Slocum, Richard K. Taft, and Wayne H. Schubert

1. Introduction Figure 1 is a GOES visible–infrared blended image of the Pacific Ocean on 11 March 2015, a day when there were twin tropical cyclones in the west and a double intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the east. A striking feature of this image, and many other similar images, is the narrowness of the double ITCZ bands and, hence, the narrowness of the rising parts of the Hadley circulation. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the boundary layer dynamics associated

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Stephen I. Thomson and Michael E. McIntyre

-damping mechanism. Real radiative heat transfer is not only far more complicated but also dependent on unknown details of the cloud structure within the weather layer and near the interface with the dry-convective layer. The extreme straightness and steadiness of Jupiter’s prograde jets make them strikingly dissimilar to the strong jets of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans, with their conspicuous, large-amplitude long-wave meandering. By strong jets we mean the atmosphere’s tropopause and polar-night jets and the

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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara, Isaac Moradi, Robert Atlas, Sean P. F. Casey, Lidia Cucurull, Ross N. Hoffman, Kayo Ide, V. Krishna Kumar, Ruifang Li, Zhenglong Li, Michiko Masutani, Narges Shahroudi, Jack Woollen, and Yan Zhou

enhancements that are under consideration may lead to new community OSSE packages aimed at other components or coupled components of the earth system. Of particular interest are adding or coupling Earth system component models for the land surface, ocean, space weather, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosols as described by Hoffman and Atlas (2016) . In addition, different packages might be constructed to study phenomena on different scales, including studies of tropical cyclones, severe storms, the coastal

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Nathan Snook, Youngsun Jung, Jerald Brotzge, Bryan Putnam, and Ming Xue

prediction, in large part because of the lack of high quality, high-resolution hail observation datasets. Most currently available in situ hail observation datasets, including storm reports collected and archived by the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) and crowdsourced reports submitted and archived via the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) Meteorological Phenomena Identification Near the Ground (mPING) smartphone application ( Elmore et al. 2014 ), rely on reports from members of the public and

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Guanghua Chen

Abstract

In a recent paper, Kajikawa and Wang detected the interdecadal shift of the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) onset with a late SCSSM onset in an earlier epoch (1979–93) and an early SCSSM onset in a later epoch (1994–2008) and attributed this change to enhanced tropical cyclone (TC) activity and intraseasonal variability (ISV) related to 30–80-day and 10–25-day anomalies in the second epoch. This comment assesses the individual impact of TCs and ISV on the interdecadal change of the SCSSM onset by means of the removal of anomalies associated with TCs and ISV. Results herein show that TCs have no significant impact on the SCSSM onset in all years, except 2006 in which a strong and long-lived TC occurred over the South China Sea. After removing the 30–80-day anomaly, the difference in the mean SCSSM onset date in the two epochs decreases to some extent, implying that the 30–80-day anomaly can, in part, play a role in the interdecadal shift of the SCSSM onset. In contrast, the 10–25-day anomaly has an insignificant contribution to the interdecadal shift of the SCSSM onset. The discrepancy of ISV contribution results from the SCSSM background state, the magnitude and spatiotemporal scale of ISV, and the phase relationship between ISV and SCSSM transition from easterly to westerly.

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Prabhani Kuruppumullage Don, Jenni L. Evans, Francesca Chiaromonte, and Alex M. Kowaleski

as paths in the cyclone phase space (CPS), which captures the storm structure evolution ( Hart 2003 ; Evans and Hart 2003 ). Furthermore, our approach can be compared to, and used in conjunction with, other types of clustering—including environmental synoptic clustering (e.g., Harr et al. 2008 ; Keller et al. 2011 , 2014 ). The use of complementary methods of ensemble forecast clustering has the potential to improve forecasting of both storm-scale and environmental-scale phenomena. In cases

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Vladimir Kudryavtsev and Bertrand Chapron

dissipation of wind-forced, deep water waves . J. Fluid Mech. , 722 , 5 – 50 , doi: 10.1017/jfm.2013.88 . Hunt , J. , S. Belcher , D. Stretch , S. Sajjadi , and J. Clegg , 2011 : Turbulence and wave dynamics across gas–liquid interfaces . Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces , S. Komori, W. McGillis, and R. Kurose, Eds., Kyoto University Press, 1–12 . Janssen , P. , 2004 : The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind. Cambridge University Press, 300 pp . Kudryavtsev , V. N. , and V. K

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S. Christodoulaki, G. Petihakis, N. Mihalopoulos, K. Tsiaras, G. Triantafyllou, and M. Kanakidou

1. Introduction The atmospheric transport of nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron to the ocean has been identified as a significant source of nutrients to the marine ecosystem ( Duce et al. 1991 ; Jickells et al. 2005 ; Krom et al. 2010 ). Interactions between the nutrient atmospheric deposition and the ocean productivity are important for both carbon dioxide storage in the ocean ( Mahowald et al. 2005 ; Krishnamurthy et al. 2007 ; Okin et al. 2011 ) and marine ecosystems

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Zhengyu Liu, Haijun Yang, Chengfei He, and Yingying Zhao

Roe 2013a , b ; Rose et al. 2014 ; Roe et al. 2015 ). In an earlier study of Earth’s energy budget with an energy balance model (EBM), Stone (1978a) proposed that the PHT is determined essentially by the incoming shortwave radiation and the magnitude of the PHT is insensitive to the detailed structure and dynamics of the atmosphere–ocean system due to the efficient dynamic transport and negative feedback of thermal emission. Later studies confirm that the compensation of the AHT with OHT is

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