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Feihong Zhou
,
Daniel Fiifi Tawia Hagan
,
Guojie Wang
,
X. San Liang
,
Shijie Li
,
Yuhao Shao
,
Emmanuel Yeboah
, and
Xikun Wei

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere interactions play a critical role in the climate system, not only as a key component but also as an essential driver of terrestrial surface water and energy balance ( Orth and Seneviratne 2017 ; Seneviratne et al. 2006 , 2010 ). These interactions are characterized by complex couplings and feedbacks between land and atmospheric states and complex systems that include various natural processes ( Schwingshackl et al. 2017 ). Furthermore, these complex

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Haishan Chen
,
Bo Yu
,
Botao Zhou
,
Wanxin Zhang
, and
Jie Zhang

radiation effects and the feedback of land–atmosphere interaction on the warm amplification over arid/semiarid regions. In addition, various studies have explored the possible reasons for the abnormal warming of the Eurasian continent from aspects of changes in cloud amount ( Dai et al. 1997 , 1999 ; Tang and Leng 2012 ; Tang et al. 2012 ) and precipitation ( Dai et al. 1997 , 1999 ; Trenberth and Shea 2005 ). Dai et al. (1997 , 1999) pointed out that increased cloud amount can reduce solar

Open access
Jing Sun
,
Kun Yang
,
Yan Yu
,
Hui Lu
, and
Yanluan Lin

). Evaporation is a crucial water cycle component related to the energy and carbon exchanges on Earth ( Trenberth et al. 2009 ; Jung et al. 2010 ; Friedlingstein et al. 2014 ; Green et al. 2019 ; Ma et al. 2021 ; Liu et al. 2022 ). The increase in latent heat flux (proportional to evaporation) is accompanied by a decrease in sensible heat flux, which is determined by the surface energy balance. Since the TP is one of the regions with the strongest land–atmosphere interactions ( Xue et al. 2010 , 2021

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr.
,
Christa D. Peters-Lidard
, and
Sujay V. Kumar

1. Introduction The inherent coupled nature of earth’s energy and water cycles places significant importance on the proper representation and diagnosis of land–atmosphere (LA) interactions in hydrometeorological prediction models ( Entekhabi et al. 1999 ; Betts and Silva Dias 2010 ). Unfortunately, the disparate resolutions and complexities of the governing processes have made it difficult to quantify these interactions in models or observations ( Angevine 1999 ; Betts 2000 ; Cheng and

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Jessica C. A. Baker
,
Dayana Castilho de Souza
,
Paulo Y. Kubota
,
Wolfgang Buermann
,
Caio A. S. Coelho
,
Martin B. Andrews
,
Manuel Gloor
,
Luis Garcia-Carreras
,
Silvio N. Figueroa
, and
Dominick V. Spracklen

evaluation approaches over the past decade helping to drive improvements in model development, and to assess the credibility of future climate projections ( Eyring et al. 2016a ; Duveiller et al. 2018 ; Eyring et al. 2019 , 2020 ; Fasullo 2020 ). In South America, interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere are particularly important for climate, and thus need to be accurately represented in climate models. Studies integrating remote sensing and reanalysis datasets have highlighted the

Open access
Paul A. Dirmeyer
,
Yan Jin
,
Bohar Singh
, and
Xiaoqin Yan

surface states on global climate have relied on parameterizations of the land surface coupled to weather and climate models. This modeling approach is used to understand large-scale patterns and long-term statistics (cf. Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5; Taylor et al. 2012 ) provides an opportunity for multimodel assessment of the evolving nature of land–atmosphere interactions from past to present to future. A much broader evaluation is possible

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Joshua K. Roundy
and
Eric F. Wood

interactions ( Koster et al. 2000 ). There has been a great deal of work over the last decade to quantify land–atmosphere interactions and feedbacks over a variety of scales that utilize observations and prediction models. Working groups as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) initiative have done much of this work. One such effort focuses on the local land–atmosphere coupling through diagnosing the interactions between the land surface and the planetary boundary layer for models

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E. D. Rappin
,
R. Mahmood
,
U. S. Nair
, and
R. A. Pielke Sr.

land cover (LULC) plays an important role in land–atmosphere (L–A) interactions and hence impacts weather and climate ( Adegoke et al. 2007 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Carleton et al. 2001 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Gerken et al. 2019 ; LeMone et al. 2007 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ; Rabin et al. 1990 ; Segal et al. 1989 ; Zeng et al. 2016 ). These studies show LULC notably influences temperatures, moisture distribution, cloud development, and convective activities. Modifications of LULC [known as LULC

Free access
Shanshui Yuan
,
Steven M. Quiring
, and
Chen Zhao

inhibition; enhancing the probability of convective precipitation over drier soils ( Ford et al. 2015a , 2018 ; Tuttle and Salvucci 2016 ). Hence, soil moisture is a critical variable for both characterizing drought conditions and for investigating land–atmosphere interactions. Drought indices have been used to characterize near-surface moisture conditions in some land–atmosphere interaction studies because of the lack of available soil moisture measurements. For example, Hirschi et al. (2010) used

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Greta E. M. Shum
,
Marysa M. Laguë
,
Stephanie S. Rushley
, and
Abigail L. S. Swann

latitudes drives accelerated forest expansion solely through surface–atmosphere interactions. By dissecting the land–atmosphere interactions at play locally that could lead to forest expansion, we hope to build a more comprehensive understanding of the land-cover change dynamics and ultimately set a clearer stage for these global and long-range dynamics. Previous work has shown that 1) shifts in climate are able to shift biome distributions and that 2) past vegetation shifts may have been able to

Open access