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Enver Ramirez, Pedro L. da Silva Dias, and Carlos F. M. Raupp

( Longuet-Higgins et al. 1967 ; Domaracki and Loesch 1977 ; Majda et al. 1999 ; Holm and Lynch 2002 ; Raupp and Silva Dias 2009 ; Ripa 1982 , 1983a , b ). The present study applies both multiscale methods and nonlinear wave interaction theory to formulate a model capable of describing scale interactions in a simplified coupled atmosphere–ocean system. The multiscale method adopted here is similar to that adopted by Majda and Klein (2003) for the atmosphere. Thus, our approach can be regarded as

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Lionel Renault, M. Jeroen Molemaker, James C. McWilliams, Alexander F. Shchepetkin, Florian Lemarié, Dudley Chelton, Serena Illig, and Alex Hall

approximately linear relationships between the surface stress curl (divergence) and the crosswind (downwind) components of the local SST gradient. Recent studies also highlight how a mesoscale SST front may have an impact all the way up to the troposphere ( Minobe et al. 2008 ). The effect of oceanic currents is another aspect of interaction between atmosphere and ocean; however, its effects are not yet well known. Some work shows that the current effect on the surface stress can lead to a reduction of the

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Yang Liu, Jisk Attema, and Wilco Hazeleger

1. Introduction Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean play a crucial role in redistributing energy, thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system. Here, we study the compensation between the atmosphere’s and ocean’s heat transport variations. It influences large-scale dynamics by reshaping the energy budget. Many efforts have been made to determine heat transport. In the 1960s, Jacob Bjerknes suggested that energy transport in the atmosphere and ocean should compensate

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Guixing Chen and Huiling Qin

adjustment in the ocean–atmosphere system, which produces time-dependent oscillations at periods ranging from intraseasonal to subannual time scales ( Sobel and Gildor 2003 ; Maloney and Sobel 2007 ). Most previous studies on hot spots were based on either monthly analyses or numerical experiments. Observational evidence of the air–sea interactions on short time scales during hot spot evolution remains inconclusive. A possible cause is that the detection of fast-evolving SST, surface fluxes, atmospheric

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Achim Wirth

nonlinear models and also to configurations where the “Brownian particle” is some “slow” property of a system. The case considered here: the dynamics of two two-dimensional layers of fluid, in turbulent motion, coupled by frictional forces at their interface, is conceptually similar. When the mass (per unit area) in the lower layer (ocean) is much higher than in the upper layer (atmosphere), the interactions resemble those of a heavy Brownian particle surrounded by light molecules. The atmospheric

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, and Michael A. Alexander

resolving ocean eddies enhances the realism in depicting air–sea interaction. To test this hypothesis, we repeat the local-LIM analysis using two recent coupled GCM simulations from CCSM3.5 ( Gent et al. 2010 ) that only differ in their oceanic model resolution. The HR (LR) simulation has an ocean model resolution of 0.1° (1.0°); both employ the 0.5° Community Atmosphere Model, version 3, for the atmosphere. Note the HR allows for oceanic eddies, which are parameterized by the large-scale flow in the LR

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Xuan Shan, Zhao Jing, Bingrong Sun, Ping Chang, Lixin Wu, and Xiaohui Ma

processes (e.g., Dong et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ; Dong et al. 2017 ). They are also intensely coupled with the overlying atmosphere and much progress has been made on this topic. Unlike air–sea interactions at large scales, the ocean mesoscale eddy–atmosphere (OME-A) interaction is regarded as an ocean-driven process. The interaction can be divided into two categories: the effects arising from the sea surface current anomaly and from the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) induced by

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Rhys Parfitt and Young-Oh Kwon

, 2004 : North Atlantic atmosphere–ocean interaction on intraseasonal time scales . J. Climate , 17 , 1617 – 1621 ,<1617:NAAIOI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1617:NAAIOI>2.0.CO;2 Davini , P. , and C. Cagnazzo , 2014 : On the misinterpretation of the North Atlantic Oscillation in CMIP5 models . Climate Dyn. , 43 , 1497 – 1511 , . 10.1007/s00382-013-1970-y Deser , C. , and M. S. Timlin

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Lionel Renault, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Jonathan Gula, Sebastien Masson, and James C. McWilliams

layer, suggest small-scale variation in wind stress induced by ocean–atmosphere interactions may modify the large-scale ocean circulation. The effect of oceanic currents is another aspect of the interaction between atmosphere and ocean; however, its effects are not yet well known. Some work showed that the current effect on the surface stress can lead to a reduction of the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) of the ocean via a “mechanical dampening” ( Duhaut and Straub 2006 ; Dewar and Flierl 1987 ; Dawe

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Zachary S. Kaufman, Nicole Feldl, Wilbert Weijer, and Milena Veneziani

ocean convection reaching depths of up to 3000 m ( Gordon 1982 ). Reanalysis-based reconstructions of the Weddell polynyas have shown that the tapping of the deep-ocean heat reservoir, combined with intense air–sea interaction over the anomalously ice-free ocean, delivered large quantities of heat to the atmosphere ( Moore et al. 2002 ). More recent wintertime observations of smaller polynyas over the Maud Rise seamount during 2016 and 2017 illustrate that these sea ice features can be influenced by

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