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Hyodae Seo
,
Larry W. O’Neill
,
Mark A. Bourassa
,
Arnaud Czaja
,
Kyla Drushka
,
James B. Edson
,
Baylor Fox-Kemper
,
Ivy Frenger
,
Sarah T. Gille
,
Benjamin P. Kirtman
,
Shoshiro Minobe
,
Angeline G. Pendergrass
,
Lionel Renault
,
Malcolm J. Roberts
,
Niklas Schneider
,
R. Justin Small
,
Ad Stoffelen
, and
Qing Wang

discusses the tropospheric responses emphasizing the modulation of local and downstream adjustments of extratropical weather systems and their aspects related to climate change. Section 4 probes into the oceanic responses due to thermal and mechanical feedback processes. The section emphasizes the need to develop new theories and parameterizations to account for rectified effects of eddy–atmosphere interaction. Section 5 explores the emerging observational platforms critical for accurate in situ and

Open access
Enver Ramirez
,
Pedro L. da Silva Dias
, and
Carlos F. M. Raupp

( Longuet-Higgins et al. 1967 ; Domaracki and Loesch 1977 ; Majda et al. 1999 ; Holm and Lynch 2002 ; Raupp and Silva Dias 2009 ; Ripa 1982 , 1983a , b ). The present study applies both multiscale methods and nonlinear wave interaction theory to formulate a model capable of describing scale interactions in a simplified coupled atmosphere–ocean system. The multiscale method adopted here is similar to that adopted by Majda and Klein (2003) for the atmosphere. Thus, our approach can be regarded as

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Dian-Yi Li
and
Zhe-Min Tan

mixing and upwelling of the ocean, which cool the sea surface ( Sun et al. 2015 ; Yablonsky and Ginis 2009 ). Changes in SST can in turn affect TC intensification via the enthalpy fluxes within an effective radius (e.g., Miyamoto and Takemi 2010 ; Xu and Wang 2010 ). The dynamic processes of TC–ocean interactions in the coupling system have been investigated in detail using ocean–atmosphere coupled models (e.g., Chen et al. 2007 ; Lee and Chen 2012 , 2014 ; Li and Huang 2018 , 2019 ; Lin et

Free access
Lionel Renault
,
M. Jeroen Molemaker
,
James C. McWilliams
,
Alexander F. Shchepetkin
,
Florian Lemarié
,
Dudley Chelton
,
Serena Illig
, and
Alex Hall

approximately linear relationships between the surface stress curl (divergence) and the crosswind (downwind) components of the local SST gradient. Recent studies also highlight how a mesoscale SST front may have an impact all the way up to the troposphere ( Minobe et al. 2008 ). The effect of oceanic currents is another aspect of interaction between atmosphere and ocean; however, its effects are not yet well known. Some work shows that the current effect on the surface stress can lead to a reduction of the

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Shizuo Liu
,
Qigang Wu
,
Yonghong Yao
, and
Steven R. Schroeder

that further modulate the underlying atmosphere–ocean interactions. Spring and summer TP heating anomalies cause large-scale Asian–Pacific Oscillation (APO) teleconnection responses over the extratropical Asian–North Pacific sector ( Nan et al. 2009 ; Zhou et al. 2009 ; Zhao et al. 2011 ; S. Liu et al. 2017 ), and affect SST patterns over the North Pacific through interactions among the North Pacific subtropical high, the Hadley circulation, and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over the

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Yan Du
,
Shang-Ping Xie
,
Ya-Li Yang
,
Xiao-Tong Zheng
,
Lin Liu
, and
Gang Huang

( Xie et al. 2003 ). These processes illustrate the importance of air–sea interaction and ocean dynamics in the Indian Ocean; they are not simply a passive response to ENSO via the “atmospheric bridge” ( Alexander et al. 2002 ). The complexity of the above processes poses a challenge for the coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) to simulate Indian Ocean climate and SST variability. In an analysis of the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) phase 3 of the Coupled Model

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Chun Li
,
Lixin Wu
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

zonal overturning circulation (e.g., Sun and Liu 1996 ). A recent study by Chiang et al. (2008) suggested that the zonal SST gradient in the tropical Pacific can be enhanced by a northward interhemispheric thermal gradient (ITG) forcing based on a hybrid coupled model consisting of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and a 1.5-layer reduced gravity ocean model. A fast surface ocean–atmosphere interaction mechanism, called the wind–evaporation–SST (WES; Xie and Philander 1994

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Jiazhen Zhao
,
Shengping He
, and
Huijun Wang

, sea ice reductions can serve as a response to the atmospheric forcing ( Park et al. 2015 ). For example, sea ice reductions can be induced by warm air from the lower latitudes, which can cause an increase in the surface downward longwave radiation and the surface downward THF. Therefore, analysis of the simultaneous relationship between the anomalies of the SIC and the surface THF in situ can provide physical insight into the predominant direction of the atmosphere–ocean–ice interaction, which can

Open access
Yue Sun
,
Jing-Wu Liu
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3167-7 . 10.1007/s00382-016-3167-7 Forbes , J. M. , M. E. Hagan , X. Zhang , and K. Hamilton , 1997 : Upper atmosphere tidal oscillations due to latent heat release in the tropical troposphere . Ann. Geophys. , 15 , 1165 – 1175 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-997-1165-0 . 10.1007/s00585-997-1165-0 Frankignoul , C. , G. de Coëtlogon , T. M. Joyce , and S. Dong , 2001 : Gulf Stream variability and ocean–atmosphere interactions . J. Phys. Oceanogr

Open access
Shuqin Zhang
,
Gang Fu
,
Chungu Lu
, and
Jingwu Liu

: Role of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio–Oyashio systems in large-scale atmosphere–ocean interaction: A review . J. Climate , 23 , 3249 – 3281 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3343.1 . 10.1175/2010JCLI3343.1 Lim , E.-P. , and I. Simmonds , 2002 : Explosive cyclone development in the Southern Hemisphere and a comparison with Northern Hemisphere events . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 130 , 2188 – 2209 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<2188:ECDITS>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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