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Acacia S. Pepler
and
Andrew J. Dowdy

). Given the high contribution of cyclones to rainfall in this region, and the magnitude of projected declines, this may translate to an underestimation of the true projected rainfall declines for these highly populated areas including southern Australia, South Africa, and South America. Consequently, improved model projections for cyclone structure would improve decision making for water availability and risks associated with extremes including flooding. In Australia south of 25°S, surface cyclones

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J. Teng
,
F. H. S. Chiew
,
J. Vaze
,
S. Marvanek
, and
D. G. C. Kirono

( Fu 1981 ) top-down energy and water balance equations to estimate climate change impact on mean annual runoff across Australia. The equations are easy to use, and have been widely applied to estimate water balance response to change in precipitation and other climate variables ( Oudin et al. 2008 ; Potter and Zhang 2009 ; Sivapalan et al. 2003 ; Zhang et al. 2008 ). Gardner (2009) used similar water balance equations and showed that the climate change impact on annual runoff estimates

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Yi-Ru Chen
,
Bofu Yu
, and
Graham Jenkins

, for these regions there is either no change in annual rainfall or even a decrease in annual rainfall. Australia has a significantly high rainfall variability; therefore, many studies have examined rainfall variations throughout Australia ( Yu and Neil 1993 ; Nicholls and Kariko 1993 ; Nicholls et al. 1996 ; Haylock and Nicholls 2000 ; Nicholls 2003 ; Hardwick Jones et al. 2010 ; Li et al. 2011 ). Haylock and Nicholls (2000) also examined the trends in Australian extreme rainfall and found

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Richard A. Dare
,
Noel E. Davidson
, and
John L. McBride

1. Introduction During each warm season in the Southern Hemisphere, from around November to April, approximately 12 tropical cyclones (TCs) are observed in the Australian region between longitudes 90° and 160°E ( McBride and Keenan 1982 ; Dare and Davidson 2004 ; Ramsay et al. 2008 ). While it is well known that a TC’s strong winds inflict damage directly upon human infrastructure, causing economic losses and loss of human life ( Sheets 1990 ; Elsberry 2002 ; Rappaport 2000 ; Blake et al

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I. N. Smith
,
L. Wilson
, and
R. Suppiah

1. Introduction The northern Australian rainy season starts sometime between September and December, peaks during the austral summer, and ends rapidly in March or April ( Suppiah and Hennessy 1996 ). The remainder of the year is virtually dry. During the wet season, rainfall at most stations north of about 30°S is affected by active and break periods of the monsoon, the presence of tropical cyclones, and local thunderstorms. The monsoon refers to that time during the summer when the tropics are

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Lance M. Leslie
,
Bruce W. Buckley
, and
Mark Leplastrier

open-ocean conditions. Our aims are twofold. First, in section 2 , we describe how the QuikSCAT data have a similarly important role in forecasting severe weather for the coastal and open-ocean areas of forecast responsibility of the Perth Regional Forecasting Centre (RFC) and the Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (TCWC), in the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia. In particular, we indicate how the QuikSCAT data are employed by the Perth RFC and TCWC, and discuss some of the present limitations

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Alberto Troccoli
,
Karl Muller
,
Peter Coppin
,
Robert Davy
,
Chris Russell
, and
Annette L. Hirsch

the Northern Hemisphere over 1979–2008: these trends are partly due to changes in atmospheric circulation, which would explain 10%–50% of the wind reduction, depending on the region, and partly to a generalized increase in surface roughness, owing to forest growth and expansion, land use changes, and urbanization, which would be responsible for 25%–60% of the observed changes. Over Australia, McVicar et al. (2008 , hereafter MV08) estimated a wind speed decline with an average decrease of 0

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Stephen Gilmore

1. Introduction Maximum daily temperature is an important variable with respect to anthropogenic climate change in Australia. Extreme temperatures have profound effects on, for example, ecology and human health, and can lead to urban electrical grid failure ( Perkins-Kirkpatrick et al. 2016 ). Increased mortality will occur with increases in both mean daily temperatures and the number of days where the maximum is above a given threshold ( Huang et al. 2012 ). Increased mean daily maximum

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R. M. Mitchell
,
S. K. Campbell
,
Y. Qin
, and
J. L. Gras

last decade, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has established an Aerosol Ground Station Network (AGSNet), with the aims of developing a climatology of significant Australian continental aerosol types, including biomass burning in the tropical north and wind-blown dust in the arid zone, and supporting validation of satellite aerosol products. The stations operate sun photometers that are affiliated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

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Andréa S. Taschetto
and
Matthew H. England

1. Introduction Australia generally experiences below-average rain during El Niño events. This relationship is thought to be modulated by interdecadal variations in Pacific Ocean sea surface temperature (SST; e.g., Nicholls et al. 1996 ; Power et al. 1999 ; Arblaster et al. 2002 ; Suppiah 2004 ). One of the largest recorded El Niño events occurred in 1997/98, yet this had only a modest impact on Australian rainfall. In contrast, severe drought in Australia resulted from the weak 2002/03 El

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