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Peter P. Sullivan and Edward G. Patton

1. Introduction Large-scale parallel computing has the potential to alter the landscape of turbulence simulations in the atmospheric and oceanic planetary boundary layers (PBLs) as increased computer power using O (10 4 –10 5 ) or more processors ( National Science Foundation 2007 ) will permit large-eddy simulations (LESs) of turbulent PBLs coupling small and large scales in realistic outdoor environments. Applications include, atmosphere–land interactions ( Patton et al. 2005 ), boundary

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John Thuburn and Georgios A. Efstathiou

1. Introduction Large-eddy simulations (LESs) of the dry convective boundary layer, with homogeneous bottom boundary conditions and in the absence of mean wind, are found to be dominated by plumes and thermals whose horizontal and vertical scales are comparable to the boundary layer depth z * (e.g., Schmidt and Schumann 1989 ). These length scales seem to require some explanation, given that when the equations of inviscid fluid dynamics are linearized about a convectively unstable basic

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Germán Martínez, Francisco Valero, and Luis Vázquez

1. Introduction The mixed layer is one of the three layers into which the convective boundary layer can be divided, with the surface layer and the entrainment zone lying respectively beneath and above it. It is characterized by an intense vertical mixing that tends to leave variables such as potential temperature and humidity nearly constant with height, even wind speed and direction ( Stull 1988 ). On Earth, it typically encompasses 40%–70% of the convective boundary layer height. The Martian

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Jade Rachele Garcia and Juan Pedro Mellado

1. Introduction The zero-order bulk model (ZOM) ( Zilitinkevich 1991 ) predicts well enough the mean entrainment rate of a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer (CBL) with constant surface buoyancy flux growing into a linearly stratified fluid. However, the ZOM cannot predict accurately the parameters that affect the mean entrainment rate (which we call entrainment rate parameters), such as the entrainment ratio and the buoyancy increment of CBLs with relatively thick entrainment zone (EZ

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Jun A. Zhang, Robert F. Rogers, David S. Nolan, and Frank D. Marks Jr.

1. Introduction The boundary layer is known to play an important role in the energy transport processes of a hurricane, regulating the radial and vertical distributions of momentum and enthalpy that are closely related to storm development and intensification (e.g., Ooyama 1969 ; Emanuel 1986 ; Wroe and Barnes 2003 ; Smith et al. 2008 ; Rotunno et al. 2009 ; Smith and Montgomery 2010 ). Numerical studies have shown that the simulated hurricane intensity is very sensitive to the selection

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Steven J. A. van der Linden, Peter Baas, J. Antoon van Hooft, Ivo G. S. van Hooijdonk, Fred C. Bosveld, and Bas J. H. van de Wiel

1. Introduction In this paper, a climatology of 11 yr of observations of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is presented in terms of geostrophic wind speed. As we will focus on clear-sky cases only, mechanical forcing is expected to be the major factor determining the evolution of the NBL. For offline numerical studies of the NBL, for example, using single-column models or large-eddy simulations (LESs), the geostrophic wind is often taken as an a priori known external parameter that is either

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B. Van Dam, D. Helmig, W. Neff, and L. Kramer

polar tropospheric chemistry. One important factor influencing surface trace gas levels is the atmospheric boundary layer. Studies at the South Pole (SP) have shown that a combination of conditions—including low snow accumulation rates allowing for efficient recycling of nitrogen, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x : NO + NO 2 ) from the snowpack, a long fetch allowing NO x accumulation in the surface layer, and sustained shallow stable boundary layers—promote elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO

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Jeremy A. Gibbs and Evgeni Fedorovich

1. Introduction The structure function of a random turbulent field represents the intensity of fluctuations with spatial length scales that are smaller than, or on the order of, a prescribed separation distance ( Kolmogorov 1941a , b ; Tatarskii 1961 ). Examples of random fields in the atmosphere include spatial distributions of meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, velocity, and refractive index of the air. For many applications associated with atmospheric boundary layer

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Juliane Schwendike and Jeffrey D. Kepert

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones are among the most destructive of natural phenomena. Understanding the hazard resulting from wind, storm surges, and waves clearly requires a thorough knowledge of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Recent theoretical and observational work has begun to show that the boundary layer in a tropical cyclone is distinctly different from the atmospheric boundary layer in other situations. The most distinctive observed feature is the marked jetlike maximum at about

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Peter J. Vickery, Dhiraj Wadhera, Mark D. Powell, and Yingzhao Chen

1. Introduction A hurricane boundary layer model is developed using a combination of mean profiles of horizontal wind speed computed using dropsonde data and a linear theoretical hurricane boundary layer model developed by Kepert (2001) . The final hurricane boundary layer model incorporates a combined logarithmic–quadratic variation of the mean wind speed with height used to replicate the height of the low-level jet observed in the hurricane boundary layer. The empirical hurricane boundary

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