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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

et al. 2000 ). An initial evaluation of a reanalysis record is therefore a useful undertaking. The purpose of this study is to provide a basic overview of the quality of MERRA in polar regions. To this end we focus on the atmospheric moisture budget, which has recently been the subject of other studies. A companion paper examines the representation of the atmospheric energy budget in MERRA over high latitudes (Cullather and Bosilovich 2011, manuscript submitted to J. Climate ). The surface

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G. J. Boer and V. Arora

1. Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 affect both the energy and carbon balance of the climate system. Boer and Arora (2009 , hereafter BA) analyze the response of the global mean carbon budget to anthropogenic emission of CO 2 in terms of “carbon–temperature” and “carbon–concentration” feedbacks. Increasing surface CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere promotes carbon uptake by the underlying land and ocean and this acts to counteract the atmospheric CO 2 increase and so acts

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K. K. Szeto, H. Tran, M. D. MacKay, R. Crawford, and R. E. Stewart

climate. In the GEWEX science plan, this pressing task is to be addressed in the so-called Water and Energy Budget Study (WEBS) that is first being carried out for the individual study basins selected for the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs), and then collectively under the coordination of the GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP; Lawford et al. 2004 ). WEBS in GEWEX CSEs differs from previous water and energy budget studies (e.g., Berbery et al. 1999 ; Trenberth et al. 2001 ; Roads et al

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David M. Romps

1. Introduction To motivate the study of the entropy budget, consider first an enclosed, dry atmosphere. For an enclosed atmosphere in a steady state, the sum of all the entropy sources must be zero (here, “sources” is shorthand for sources and sinks). In the case of an enclosed, dry atmosphere, all of the entropy sources are simply heat sources divided by the temperature. For example, possible heat sources include radiation ( Q ), conduction of heat (− ∇ · J , where J is the conductive

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Paula J. Brown and Christian D. Kummerow

increased interest in understanding and parameterizing the global energy budgets, in order to further our understanding of the current climate state. Climate change affects global energy and moisture fluxes, with any changes to global energy budgets also affecting the hydrological cycle. Examining the closure of energy or moisture budgets tests the fundamental quality of the data products themselves. Additionally, closure provides a test of trends in individual components and an indication of how the

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Masaki Katsumata, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Richard H. Johnson

1. Introduction Diabatic heating by convective systems is one of the important driving forces of the atmospheric circulation. Diabatic heating impacts both the global atmospheric circulation (e.g., Hartmann et al. 1984 ; Schumacher et al. 2004 ) and the local circulation (e.g., Nicholls et al. 1991 ; Mapes and Houze 1995 ; Lin et al. 2004 ) by exciting a variety of wave types. To observationally estimate diabatic heating and moistening by convective systems, budget analysis of heat and

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Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka

his remarks on the utility of the TEM formalism in angular momentum budgets have not been published. Let us consider a zonal annulus of width W and depth D . The AAM conservation equation in z coordinates states that the AAM of this annulus can be changed only by AAM fluxes through its lateral and vertical boundaries (e.g., Egger and Hoinka 2005 ) and by torques at the lower boundary if the annulus intersects the topography. TEM theory reformulates the zonal momentum equation. It is of

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Rebecca A. Smith and Christian D. Kummerow

1. Introduction In the semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, much of the water supply for seven states primarily begins as snowpack in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB). With sparse vegetation in the basin, changes in temperature and precipitation lead to direct responses in the water budget (particularly storage in snowpack and runoff), thus greatly affecting the water supply. A complete understanding of the water budget is critical, as changes can have major socioeconomic

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Norman G. Loeb, Bruce A. Wielicki, David R. Doelling, G. Louis Smith, Dennis F. Keyes, Seiji Kato, Natividad Manalo-Smith, and Takmeng Wong

modulated by its capacity to store energy. Given that oceans are 10 times more efficient at storing heat than other components of the climate system (e.g., land, ice, atmosphere; Levitus et al. 2001 ), the global net radiation at the TOA should be in phase with and of similar magnitude as the global ocean heat storage. Wong et al. (2006) showed that this is indeed the case by comparing TOA net flux anomalies from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and ocean heat content anomalies from in

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A. K. Wåhlin and H. L. Johnson

Atlantic layer enters the basin well below the surface, direct heat loss from the boundary current to the atmosphere was neglected, and separate budgets for the boundary current and the basin interior were formulated. Heat lost from the inflowing boundary current was assumed to be transferred via eddies to the basin interior, from whence it is lost to the atmosphere. The aim of the present study is to investigate the different effects of surface heat and freshwater fluxes on the density evolution of

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