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Ciara Dorsay
,
Galen Egan
,
Isabel Houghton
,
Christie Hegermiller
, and
Pieter B. Smit

1. Introduction In situ observations of ocean surface winds are sparse. The cost of deploying and maintaining deep sea moorings restricts the use of moored buoys to select locations (e.g., the TOA array; Hayes et al. 1991 ). Ship-based anemometer readings (e.g., the voluntary observing ship scheme; Kent et al. 2010 ) are restricted to major trading routes, often have suboptimal placement of instruments, are biased toward low wind conditions (due to storm avoidance), and have seen a

Open access
Eric D. Maloney
and
Steven K. Esbensen

wind–evaporation feedback contributes to convective variability during summertime ISO events in the east Pacific warm pool. Wind speed and precipitation derived from satellite observations are used in conjunction with buoy latent heat fluxes to quantify the wind–evaporation feedback and its relationship to ISO convection. We also assess the contributions of surface divergence and tropospheric dryness to ISO convective variability, particularly where wind–evaporation feedback breaks down. Finally

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Carolyn A. Reynolds
,
Rebecca E. Stone
,
James D. Doyle
,
Nancy L. Baker
,
Anna M. Wilson
,
F. Martin Ralph
,
David A. Lavers
,
Aneesh C. Subramanian
, and
Luca Centurioni

regions where satellite observations provide less information than in clear regions ( Zheng et al. 2021b ). In addition to the deployment of dropsondes, AR Recon has also deployed drifting buoys, or drifters ( Centurioni 2018 ), in partnership with the Global Drifter Program, ( Lavers et al. 2020b ; Ralph et al. 2020 ) that provide surface pressure observations ( Centurioni et al. 2017b ) in the northeastern Pacific. The hourly surface pressure observations from the AR Recon drifters serve as a

Free access
Boyin Huang
,
Chunying Liu
,
Guoyu Ren
,
Huai-Min Zhang
, and
Lei Zhang

1. Introduction Ocean analyses, reanalyses, and predictions rely on the observations from a variety of platforms, including ships, drifting buoys, moored buoys, Argo floats ( Argo 2018 ; Roemmich et al. 2001 ), and satellites. However, these observing systems changed a lot over time. For example, Argo observations have been increasing rapidly since 2000, whereas the observations from the Tropical Atmosphere–Ocean (TAO) and Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) in the tropical Pacific

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Virendra P. Ghate
,
Bruce A. Albrecht
,
Christopher W. Fairall
, and
Robert A. Weller

. This, along with the high correlation of ISCCP low- plus midlevel cloud cover with the calculated CF, suggests that the ISCCP algorithm is able to observe the low clouds over the buoy location but is misclassifying some of them in the midlevel category. This may be due to the dependence of ISCCP algorithm on low-resolution observations of the atmospheric temperature structure in that region ( Garay et al. 2008 ; Wang et al. 1999 ). It is beyond the scope of this study to further analyze the reason

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Andrew M. Chiodi
and
D. E. Harrison

Pacific oceanic waveguide and are now understood to play an important role in the onset and development of both El Niño and La Niña events. TAO/TRITON wind observations offer dramatic improvement over what was available prior to the deployment of the buoy array. Attempts at reproducing ENSO sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) changes using ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) forced with different pre-TAO wind stress estimates largely revealed a frustrating amount of uncertainty in the wind

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T. J. Smyth
,
J. R. Fishwick
,
C. P. Gallienne
,
J. A. Stephens
, and
A. J. Bale

above) but a weekly check on the instrument output is made possible by the weekly sampling schedule at L4 for parameters such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate by PML’s research vessels. This helps to check for data contamination by residual biofouling or the degradation of sensor lamps (ISUS). The tilt and roll of the buoy may possibly have an effect on the above-surface irradiance measurements and is currently not measured onboard. However, observations of the buoy motion in moderate

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Michael Schlundt
,
J. Thomas Farrar
,
Sebastien P. Bigorre
,
Albert J. Plueddemann
, and
Robert A. Weller

backscattered radiation. These parameters are related to the small-scale surface roughness, which is in turn related to the surface stress, and are finally converted to winds via a geophysical model function (GMF). For the development of the GMF, direct in situ observations are essential, and observations from buoys are critical for providing a baseline for winds over the open ocean. The characterization of errors in in situ measurements is critical to understanding wind-driven processes as well as

Open access
C. M. Fisher
,
G. S. Young
,
N. S. Winstead
, and
J. D. Haqq-Misra

1. Introduction Studying coastal storms involves, among other things, a mapping of the near-surface marine wind field. Obtaining high-density marine measurements via on-site observations would require a prohibitively large number of buoys; therefore, space-based radar methods are often used. Such radars provide useful wind speed estimates because, as the wind speed over the ocean surface increases, so does the radar backscatter from the wind-driven waves. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) yields

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Harvey E. Seim
and
Catherine R. Edwards

1. Introduction One of the challenges in building an ocean observing system, as called for in a number of studies ( Frosch 2000 ; OCEAN.US 2002 ; Commission on Ocean Policy 2004 ), is ensuring accurate real-time observations of ocean circulation. To take advantage of existing platforms there is interest in mounting current profilers on buoys that already have real-time telemetry capabilities. We here explore the effectiveness of a test deployment of a current profiler attached beneath a

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