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Eric D. Maloney and Steven K. Esbensen

wind–evaporation feedback contributes to convective variability during summertime ISO events in the east Pacific warm pool. Wind speed and precipitation derived from satellite observations are used in conjunction with buoy latent heat fluxes to quantify the wind–evaporation feedback and its relationship to ISO convection. We also assess the contributions of surface divergence and tropospheric dryness to ISO convective variability, particularly where wind–evaporation feedback breaks down. Finally

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Boyin Huang, Chunying Liu, Guoyu Ren, Huai-Min Zhang, and Lei Zhang

1. Introduction Ocean analyses, reanalyses, and predictions rely on the observations from a variety of platforms, including ships, drifting buoys, moored buoys, Argo floats ( Argo 2018 ; Roemmich et al. 2001 ), and satellites. However, these observing systems changed a lot over time. For example, Argo observations have been increasing rapidly since 2000, whereas the observations from the Tropical Atmosphere–Ocean (TAO) and Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) in the tropical Pacific

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Virendra P. Ghate, Bruce A. Albrecht, Christopher W. Fairall, and Robert A. Weller

. This, along with the high correlation of ISCCP low- plus midlevel cloud cover with the calculated CF, suggests that the ISCCP algorithm is able to observe the low clouds over the buoy location but is misclassifying some of them in the midlevel category. This may be due to the dependence of ISCCP algorithm on low-resolution observations of the atmospheric temperature structure in that region ( Garay et al. 2008 ; Wang et al. 1999 ). It is beyond the scope of this study to further analyze the reason

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Andrew M. Chiodi and D. E. Harrison

Pacific oceanic waveguide and are now understood to play an important role in the onset and development of both El Niño and La Niña events. TAO/TRITON wind observations offer dramatic improvement over what was available prior to the deployment of the buoy array. Attempts at reproducing ENSO sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) changes using ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) forced with different pre-TAO wind stress estimates largely revealed a frustrating amount of uncertainty in the wind

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Michael Schlundt, J. Thomas Farrar, Sebastien P. Bigorre, Albert J. Plueddemann, and Robert A. Weller

backscattered radiation. These parameters are related to the small-scale surface roughness, which is in turn related to the surface stress, and are finally converted to winds via a geophysical model function (GMF). For the development of the GMF, direct in situ observations are essential, and observations from buoys are critical for providing a baseline for winds over the open ocean. The characterization of errors in in situ measurements is critical to understanding wind-driven processes as well as

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T. J. Smyth, J. R. Fishwick, C. P. Gallienne, J. A. Stephens, and A. J. Bale

above) but a weekly check on the instrument output is made possible by the weekly sampling schedule at L4 for parameters such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate by PML’s research vessels. This helps to check for data contamination by residual biofouling or the degradation of sensor lamps (ISUS). The tilt and roll of the buoy may possibly have an effect on the above-surface irradiance measurements and is currently not measured onboard. However, observations of the buoy motion in moderate

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C. M. Fisher, G. S. Young, N. S. Winstead, and J. D. Haqq-Misra

1. Introduction Studying coastal storms involves, among other things, a mapping of the near-surface marine wind field. Obtaining high-density marine measurements via on-site observations would require a prohibitively large number of buoys; therefore, space-based radar methods are often used. Such radars provide useful wind speed estimates because, as the wind speed over the ocean surface increases, so does the radar backscatter from the wind-driven waves. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) yields

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Harvey E. Seim and Catherine R. Edwards

1. Introduction One of the challenges in building an ocean observing system, as called for in a number of studies ( Frosch 2000 ; OCEAN.US 2002 ; Commission on Ocean Policy 2004 ), is ensuring accurate real-time observations of ocean circulation. To take advantage of existing platforms there is interest in mounting current profilers on buoys that already have real-time telemetry capabilities. We here explore the effectiveness of a test deployment of a current profiler attached beneath a

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Tom H. Durrant, Diana J. M. Greenslade, and Ian Simmonds

1. Introduction Wave height measurements are used for a variety of purposes. These range from studies to improve the understanding of the physical processes responsible for wind–wave evolution to the validation and calibration of models for waves and other ocean processes as well as wave climate investigations, which have implications for shipping and offshore engineering projects. Traditionally, data coverage over the ocean has been poor. Wave observations have come from ships and moored buoys

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Gary B. Brassington

1. Introduction A surface drifting buoy experiment conducted between February and March 2007 released buoy pairs within the East Australian Current (EAC) system and Tasman Sea ( Brassington et al. 2007b ). The surface drifting buoys were tethered to a holey-sock drogue, which operates at a depth of 15 ± 7.5 m. Observations from these buoys can be calibrated for the effects of drag from surface winds and vertical shear ( Niiler et al. 1995 ). The experiment launched buoy pairs with an initial

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