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Nekeisha Spencer and Mikhail-Ann Urquhart

1. Introduction Many countries across the world are vulnerable to natural disasters. Hurricanes, which often result in extensive damages, are an example of one such natural disaster that is faced by countries both in the developed and developing worlds. The Central American and Caribbean (CAC) region is particularly vulnerable to hurricanes, with many of the countries from this region experiencing damages that often hamper recovery and growth. Historical hurricane tracks housed by the National

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Philippe P. Papin, Lance F. Bosart, and Ryan D. Torn

1. Introduction Central American gyres (CAGs) are broad lower-tropospheric cyclonic circulations occurring near Central America, and are similar to broad monsoonal low pressure systems (MLs) in other oceanic basins (e.g., Boos et al. 2015 ; Hurley and Boos 2015 ). While MLs have been studied the most extensively in the north Indian Ocean basin (e.g., Piddington 1876 ; Eliot 1900 ; Krishnamurti et al. 1975 ; Godbole 1977 ; Sanders 1984 ; Douglas 1992 ; Boos et al. 2015 ), similar

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Shang-Ping Xie, Yuko Okumura, Toru Miyama, and Axel Timmermann

perturbations that originated in the high-latitude North Atlantic region. It has been found that a North Atlantic cooling of about 10°C translates into a significant southward displacement of the Atlantic ITCZ, reducing rainfall over South America and the tropical Atlantic north of the equator ( Peterson et al. 2000 ; Haug et al. 2001 ; Schmidt et al. 2006 ). On the Pacific side of the Central American isthmus, several recent analyses of sediment cores show that associated with high-latitude North

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Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

the Atlantic Ocean (eastern), North America (northern), Central America and the Pacific Ocean (western), and South America (southern). The moisture flux through each of these boundary segments is calculated using (1) . The fluxes through the IAS’s northern and western boundary segments are, respectively, referred to as “to north” and “to west.” The fluxes through the IAS’s eastern and southern boundary segments are multiplied times −1 to represent incoming fluxes and are, respectively referred to

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Richard H. Gramzow and Walter K. Henry

JuN~.1972 RICHARD H. GRAMZOW AND WALTER K. HENRY 637 The Rainy Pentads of Central America PaC~RD H. GRA~rZOW United States Army AND WALTER K. HENRY Dept. of Meteorology, Texas A~4M Univcrslty, College Station (Manuscript received 18 October 1971, in revised form 14 January 1972) ABSTRACT A rainy pentad is defined

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Andrea K. Gerlak, Zack Guido, Catherine Vaughan, Valerie Rountree, Christina Greene, Diana Liverman, Adrian R. Trotman, Roché Mahon, Shelly-Ann Cox, Simon J. Mason, Katharine L. Jacobs, James L. Buizer, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, and Walter E. Baethgen

://doi.org/10.1175/2009WCAS1007.1 . 10.1175/2009WCAS1007.1 Fetterman , D. M. , and A. Wandersman , 2005 : Empowerment Evaluation Principles in Practice . Guilford Press, 231 pp. Fetterman , D. M. , and A. Wandersman , 2007 : Empowerment evaluation: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow . Amer. J. Eval. , 28 , 179 – 198 , https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214007301350 . 10.1177/1098214007301350 Garcia-Solera , I. , and P. Ramirez , 2012 : Central America’s seasonal climate outlook forum. Regional Water

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Victor Magaña, Jorge A. Amador, and Socorro Medina

season (onset, length, temporal distribution, etc.) in rainfed areas. In order to define normal or anomalous rainy seasons, that is, the interannual variability in precipitation, it is necessary to precisely describe the regional annual cycle and examine the mechanisms that control it. The summer rainy season over the central–southern part of Mexico, most of Central America, and parts of the Caribbean is characterized by a bimodal distribution in precipitation, with maxima in June and September

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Thomas Stanley, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, George J. Huffman, and Robert F. Adler

sensitivity and a high hazard level to reduce the number of false alarms. LHASA combines rainfall and landslide susceptibility with a heuristic decision tree in three stages: first, areas rated “very low” on the landslide susceptibility map of Central America and the Caribbean Islands ( Kirschbaum et al. 2015b ) are excluded from further analysis; second, a 60-day antecedent rainfall index is calculated from TMPA-RT; and third, the current daily rainfall accumulation is compared to one of two

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Wilfried H. Portig

The existence and qualities of air masses in Central America are pointed out and explained by the geographic singularities of the North American continent.

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Man-Li C. Wu, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, and Norden E. Huang

diagrams of the unfiltered υ wind at 700 hPa and 22°N for July–August of 1998 and 1999. The results show clearly the westward propagation of the easterly waves across the Atlantic. Many of them reach all the way into the Caribbean. Some of the waves appear to propagate unimpeded across the Mexican–Central American landmass, while others are disrupted by the land and appear to reform in the Pacific. Figure 7 shows a sequence of composite fields that attempt to summarize the horizontal structure and

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