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Fabian Schloesser

generally remain characterized by relatively weak stratification throughout the year ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). Because of the requirement to balance vortex stretching in the potential vorticity (PV) budget, flow convergence in the ocean interior is strongly constrained ( Send and Marshall 1995 ), and it has been argued that the linkage between the convective sites and the large-scale circulation must be controlled by Rossby wave dynamics ( Talley 1979 ; Davey and Killworth 1989 ; Spall and Pickart

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David S. Nolan, Chidong Zhang, and Shu-hua Chen

analytical model of the SMC as a sea-breeze circulation driven by regional gradients of surface temperature and pressure. The numerical model, domain, and parameters used for idealized simulations of the Tropics are described in section 3 . Section 4 describes and analyzes the dynamics of the SMC that appears as part of the idealized simulations. A water budget for the ITCZ region is presented in section 5 , along with some examination of the effects on boundary layer stratocumulus. Conclusions and

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X. San Liang and Allan R. Robinson

difficult, if not impossible, to investigate, turn out to be straightforward in their framework. In this study, we present an application of their multiscale energy and vorticity analysis (MS-EVA) and the MS-EVA-based theory of hydrodynamic stability, which are fully nonlinear and capable of handling oceanic and atmospheric processes intermittent in space and time. 1 Toward the end of this study, one will see that underlying a seemingly chaotic circulation, the dynamics are not that complicated. That

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Michael T. Montgomery and John Persing

account both azimuthal mean and eddy contributions to the dynamics and thermodynamics of vortex spinup. Localized, rotating deep convection is recognized as an integral component of the system-scale vortex evolution. Convection locally amplifies the vorticity by up to one or two orders of magnitude by vortex-tube stretching and tilting processes in the cyclonic circulation of an incipient storm. The paradigm includes an explanation for the observed occurrence of the maximum tangential winds in the

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Ming Li, Peng Cheng, Robert Chant, Arnoldo Valle-Levinson, and Kim Arnott

Cheng et al. (2010) decomposed the estuarine residual circulation into contributions from processes such as gravitational circulation, tidal straining (or asymmetric tidal mixing) circulation, and advectively driven circulation. They found that lateral advection can be a major driving force for the estuarine circulation in some estuaries. Lateral circulation can also affect sediment dynamics ( Geyer et al. 1998 ; Huijts et al. 2006 ; Fugate et al. 2007 ). Geyer et al. (1998) , for example

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Isla R. Simpson, Theodore G. Shepherd, and Michael Sigmond

switches sign. In the stratosphere, during NH winter, the polar vortex is warmer and more disturbed during warm ENSO events (e.g., Sassi et al. 2004 ; Manzini et al. 2006 ; Garcia-Herrera et al. 2006 ; Taguchi and Hartmann 2006 ). As well as this high-latitude response there is also an altered circulation in the low-latitude lower stratosphere. During warm ENSO conditions there is enhanced upwelling in the tropical lower stratosphere, which is accompanied by cooler temperatures ( Reid et al. 1989

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Jochem Marotzke and Barry A. Klinger

used a two-hemisphere, single-basin idealized GCM driven only by buoyancy forcing to investigate the dynamics of equatorially asymmetric thermohaline circulations under asymmetric surface forcing and mixing intensity. As in KM, an imposed high-latitude surface density asymmetry as small as one percent of the pole-to-equator density contrast is sufficient to cause interhemispheric flow of the same order of magnitude as the total overturning. Geostrophy demands that there be a reversal near the

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Jaemyeong Mango Seo, Gantuya Ganbat, and Jong-Jin Baik

and dashed lines without marks are total u ( t + t 0 ). 4. Summary and conclusions To examine the dynamics of the urban breeze circulation (UBC) in a rotating system, particularly of a reversed UBC, we constructed a linearized, two-dimensional, hydrostatic, Boussinesq airflow system in the calm atmosphere with specified thermal forcing that represents diurnally varying urban heating. To represent a diurnal variation of the UBC, a daily steady solution and a diurnally varying solution are

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Yutian Wu, Richard Seager, Tiffany A. Shaw, Mingfang Ting, and Naomi Naik

mean state of the stratosphere and the behavior of the stratospheric variability. In particular, they demonstrated that the amplification of the momentum flux and the reduction of the heat flux near the model lid of the CAM3 coincided with the region of wave reflection in the high-latitude stratosphere [see Figs. 4 and 5 in Sassi et al. (2010) ]. Thus, CAM3 does not properly simulate stratospheric dynamics and this suggests caution in interpreting the circulation behavior in the CAM3-SOM as a

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Eli Tziperman, Laure Zanna, and Cecile Penland

find here that the dynamics of transient amplification of the THC involve the interaction of more than a single mode (such interaction is necessary for transient amplification to occur). Thus the picture of how THC variability is excited by the atmosphere may be more complex than previously thought. 4. Conclusions We investigated the amplification of temperature, salinity, and THC anomalies, in the GFDL coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model CM2.1, due to nonnormal dynamics. The

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