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Fabian Schloesser

generally remain characterized by relatively weak stratification throughout the year ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). Because of the requirement to balance vortex stretching in the potential vorticity (PV) budget, flow convergence in the ocean interior is strongly constrained ( Send and Marshall 1995 ), and it has been argued that the linkage between the convective sites and the large-scale circulation must be controlled by Rossby wave dynamics ( Talley 1979 ; Davey and Killworth 1989 ; Spall and Pickart

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David S. Nolan, Chidong Zhang, and Shu-hua Chen

analytical model of the SMC as a sea-breeze circulation driven by regional gradients of surface temperature and pressure. The numerical model, domain, and parameters used for idealized simulations of the Tropics are described in section 3 . Section 4 describes and analyzes the dynamics of the SMC that appears as part of the idealized simulations. A water budget for the ITCZ region is presented in section 5 , along with some examination of the effects on boundary layer stratocumulus. Conclusions and

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X. San Liang and Allan R. Robinson

difficult, if not impossible, to investigate, turn out to be straightforward in their framework. In this study, we present an application of their multiscale energy and vorticity analysis (MS-EVA) and the MS-EVA-based theory of hydrodynamic stability, which are fully nonlinear and capable of handling oceanic and atmospheric processes intermittent in space and time. 1 Toward the end of this study, one will see that underlying a seemingly chaotic circulation, the dynamics are not that complicated. That

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Zhongya Cai and Jianping Gan

; Su 2004 ; Xue et al. 2004 ; Gan et al. 2006 ; Fang et al. 2009 ; Qu et al. 2009 ; Xu and Oey 2014 , Gan et al. 2016a , b ). Hydrographic data and numerical simulations show that there are anticyclonic and cyclonic flows along the basin slope in the middle and deep layers, respectively ( Yuan 2002 ; Qu et al. 2006 ; Wang et al. 2011 ; Lan et al. 2013 , 2015 ; Shu et al. 2014 ; Zhu et al. 2017 ). Vorticity dynamics were widely used to reveal how the CAC circulation forms, but mainly

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Michael T. Montgomery and John Persing

account both azimuthal mean and eddy contributions to the dynamics and thermodynamics of vortex spinup. Localized, rotating deep convection is recognized as an integral component of the system-scale vortex evolution. Convection locally amplifies the vorticity by up to one or two orders of magnitude by vortex-tube stretching and tilting processes in the cyclonic circulation of an incipient storm. The paradigm includes an explanation for the observed occurrence of the maximum tangential winds in the

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Ming Li, Peng Cheng, Robert Chant, Arnoldo Valle-Levinson, and Kim Arnott

Cheng et al. (2010) decomposed the estuarine residual circulation into contributions from processes such as gravitational circulation, tidal straining (or asymmetric tidal mixing) circulation, and advectively driven circulation. They found that lateral advection can be a major driving force for the estuarine circulation in some estuaries. Lateral circulation can also affect sediment dynamics ( Geyer et al. 1998 ; Huijts et al. 2006 ; Fugate et al. 2007 ). Geyer et al. (1998) , for example

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Isla R. Simpson, Theodore G. Shepherd, and Michael Sigmond

switches sign. In the stratosphere, during NH winter, the polar vortex is warmer and more disturbed during warm ENSO events (e.g., Sassi et al. 2004 ; Manzini et al. 2006 ; Garcia-Herrera et al. 2006 ; Taguchi and Hartmann 2006 ). As well as this high-latitude response there is also an altered circulation in the low-latitude lower stratosphere. During warm ENSO conditions there is enhanced upwelling in the tropical lower stratosphere, which is accompanied by cooler temperatures ( Reid et al. 1989

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Camille Lique, Helen L. Johnson, and Peter E. D. Davis

interplay between the circulation in the surface and the intermediate layers of the Arctic Ocean. Although our model configuration is a gross simplification of the real Arctic basin topography and water mass structure, we are able to set up a simulation (labeled as control run hereinafter) that reproduces some of the basic features important for the Arctic Ocean dynamics, including a two-layer circulation system with characteristics close to those observed in the Canadian basin of the Arctic Ocean. In

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Yutian Wu, Richard Seager, Tiffany A. Shaw, Mingfang Ting, and Naomi Naik

mean state of the stratosphere and the behavior of the stratospheric variability. In particular, they demonstrated that the amplification of the momentum flux and the reduction of the heat flux near the model lid of the CAM3 coincided with the region of wave reflection in the high-latitude stratosphere [see Figs. 4 and 5 in Sassi et al. (2010) ]. Thus, CAM3 does not properly simulate stratospheric dynamics and this suggests caution in interpreting the circulation behavior in the CAM3-SOM as a

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Peng Cheng

along-estuary density gradient and friction, have been widely applied to describe residual circulation in estuaries (e.g., Hansen and Rattray 1965 ; Chatwin 1976 ; Officer 1976 ; MacCready 2004 ). However, a number of studies have shown that many processes in addition to the along-estuary density gradient can make important contributions to the creation of residual circulation ( Jay 1991 ; Wong 1994 ; Lerczak and Geyer 2004 ). To discern the roles of various processes in estuarine dynamics, it

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