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Yujie Wang
,
Lianchun Song
,
Chris Hewitt
,
Nicola Golding
, and
Zili Huang

1. Introduction The climate is of critical importance to social and economic development and human well-being. Against the background of climate change and increasing vulnerability and exposure, society is facing unprecedented challenges in terms of climate risks ( IPCC 2014 ). To manage and reduce climate risks as well as improve societal resilience, the World Meteorological Organization initiated the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 ( Hewitt et al. 2012 ). In recent years

Open access
Markus Huber
,
Irina Mahlstein
,
Martin Wild
,
John Fasullo
, and
Reto Knutti

1. Introduction The earth’s climate system is almost entirely driven by shortwave radiative energy coming from the sun. Although temperature and precipitation are the most widely recognized climate variables, it is basically the radiation with its energy flows and balances within the climate system that determines the earth’s climate and thus drives its various internal processes and feedbacks. Changes in the concentration of atmospheric constituents result in a perturbation of the earth

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Kwang-Hyung Kim
,
Chris D. Hewitt
,
Hideki Kanamaru
,
Jorge Alvar-Beltrán
,
Ana Heureux
,
Sook-Young Park
,
Min-Hye Jung
, and
Robert Stefanski

The COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges for food security, such as increased price volatility and destabilized supply chains due to labor shortages, restricted mobility, and general uncertainty, worsening the severity of preexisting food crises due to climate change ( FAO 2021 ; Phillips et al. 2020 ). In addition, the feasibility of conducting face-to-face services and providing farmers with weather-informed agricultural advisories has been reduced in many countries ( FAO 2020 ). While

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Bettina Steuri
,
Elisabeth Viktor
,
Juliane El Zohbi
, and
Daniela Jacob

The challenge for any successful service is to connect demand and supply in a meaningful way. In recent years, climate service has emerged as a new field tackling the supply and demand for customized climate change knowledge. As the need for customized climate change knowledge increases, so has the number of climate service providers as well as the market volume and the number of products available ( Cortekar et al. 2020a ). They aim to transform “climate-related data—together with other

Open access
C. D. Hewitt
,
F. Guglielmo
,
S. Joussaume
,
J. Bessembinder
,
I. Christel
,
F. J. Doblas-Reyes
,
V. Djurdjevic
,
N. Garrett
,
E. Kjellström
,
A. Krzic
,
M. Máñez Costa
, and
A. L. St. Clair

Climate varies naturally on a range of time scales, as evidenced in observational records and proxy records for periods predating observations. In addition to the natural variability, there is overwhelming evidence that climate is now also changing due to human emissions of greenhouse gases, as emphasized for example in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Assessment Reports, the most recent being the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5; IPCC 2013 ) with the Sixth Assessment Report

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John T. Abatzoglou
,
Kelly T. Redmond
, and
Laura M. Edwards

1. Introduction and motivation A current goal of applied climate science is to improve knowledge at regional and local levels. The smaller the scale at which such information can be provided, the greater the relevance to users for most applications. The state of California provides a distinct challenge against efforts to describe, monitor, and explain its temporal and spatial climatic characteristics. Large-scale features of the general circulation, including the semipermanent subtropical high

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Rachel E. Riley

1. Introduction Climate hazard risk assessments have been a required component of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Multihazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) since the Disaster Mitigation Act was passed in 2000 (Public Law 106-390). State, tribal, territorial, and local jurisdictions are required to have a FEMA-approved plan to receive certain types of nonemergency disaster assistance, including funding for mitigation projects ( FEMA 2019 ). Hazard mitigation is recognized as a wise

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Qianzi Yang
,
Yingying Zhao
,
Qin Wen
,
Jie Yao
, and
Haijun Yang

1. Introduction The fundamental mechanisms maintaining energy balance of Earth’s climate system are climate feedback and meridional heat transport (MHT). The former, defined as the relationship between the net radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface temperature, determines the local net energy budget in the vertical direction. The latter redistributes the tropical–extratropical energy imbalance horizontally. The mean structure of MHT is well recognized ( Trenberth and

Open access
Erin Towler
,
Debasish PaiMazumder
, and
James Done

1. Introduction Decadal climate prediction is an evolving branch of climate science that fills the gap between seasonal climate forecasts and multidecadal-to-century projections of climate change. For seasonal climate forecasts, climate models are initialized to observation-based current conditions and are run out from months to a year. For multidecadal-to-century projections of climate change, climate models are run from a randomly selected preindustrial state and extended into the future

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Nicholas Lewis
and
Judith Curry

1. Introduction There has been considerable scientific investigation of the magnitude of the warming of Earth’s climate from changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration. Two standard metrics summarize the sensitivity of global surface temperature to an externally imposed radiative forcing. Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) represents the equilibrium change in surface temperature to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Transient climate response (TCR), a shorter

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