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Stefan Grab
and
Mark Williams

Developing an improved understanding of recent (∼last two millennia) climate change depends largely on reliable historical meteorological data and refined high-precision climate modeling. With such endeavors, climate data are obtained from either “archives of nature” (e.g., sediment cores, tree rings, coral records, speleothem records) or “archives of society” (instrumental, documentary, and iconographic data sources). Natural proxies have the clear advantage of providing data into the deep

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C. D. Hewitt
,
F. Guglielmo
,
S. Joussaume
,
J. Bessembinder
,
I. Christel
,
F. J. Doblas-Reyes
,
V. Djurdjevic
,
N. Garrett
,
E. Kjellström
,
A. Krzic
,
M. Máñez Costa
, and
A. L. St. Clair

Climate varies naturally on a range of time scales, as evidenced in observational records and proxy records for periods predating observations. In addition to the natural variability, there is overwhelming evidence that climate is now also changing due to human emissions of greenhouse gases, as emphasized for example in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Assessment Reports, the most recent being the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5; IPCC 2013 ) with the Sixth Assessment Report

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Kwang-Hyung Kim
,
Chris D. Hewitt
,
Hideki Kanamaru
,
Jorge Alvar-Beltrán
,
Ana Heureux
,
Sook-Young Park
,
Min-Hye Jung
, and
Robert Stefanski

The COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges for food security, such as increased price volatility and destabilized supply chains due to labor shortages, restricted mobility, and general uncertainty, worsening the severity of preexisting food crises due to climate change ( FAO 2021 ; Phillips et al. 2020 ). In addition, the feasibility of conducting face-to-face services and providing farmers with weather-informed agricultural advisories has been reduced in many countries ( FAO 2020 ). While

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Yujie Wang
,
Lianchun Song
,
Chris Hewitt
,
Nicola Golding
, and
Zili Huang

1. Introduction The climate is of critical importance to social and economic development and human well-being. Against the background of climate change and increasing vulnerability and exposure, society is facing unprecedented challenges in terms of climate risks ( IPCC 2014 ). To manage and reduce climate risks as well as improve societal resilience, the World Meteorological Organization initiated the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 ( Hewitt et al. 2012 ). In recent years

Open access
Timothy M. Merlis
,
Isaac M. Held
,
Georgiy L. Stenchikov
,
Fanrong Zeng
, and
Larry W. Horowitz

1. Introduction Constraining the magnitude of the response of surface temperature to changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiative forcing agents is a central goal of climate research. A substantial amount of research has addressed the magnitude of the equilibrium response of the global-mean surface temperature to doubled carbon dioxide concentration, the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). However, the climate system, and the oceans in particular, will be out of

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Kyle C. Armour
,
Cecilia M. Bitz
, and
Gerard H. Roe

1. Introduction The response of the earth's climate to changes in forcing is often characterized in terms of the equilibrium climate sensitivity , the global equilibrium surface warming under a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 . This definition has facilitated direct comparison of different estimates of climate change, be they instrumental, proxy, or model derived (e.g., Hegerl et al. 2007 ; Allen et al. 2007 ; Edwards et al. 2007 ; Knutti and Hegerl 2008 , and references therein). A closely

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Ayansina Ayanlade
and
Margaret Olusolape Jegede

1. Introduction The world entirely is currently witnessing climatic change. Climate change affects all facets of human endeavor ( IPCC 2007 ; Bates et al. 2008 ; Lesnoff et al. 2012 ). Understanding the impacts of climate change and its risks has been the principal focus of research at both global and local scales. Recent climate change studies have shown that climate change will affect every part of the socioeconomic activities of humans, including the environment where humans live and the

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Stephen S. Leroy
,
James G. Anderson
, and
George Ohring

1. Introduction The U.S. National Research Council, in its decadal survey of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ( National Research Council, Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space 2007 ), has called for the following new philosophy in monitoring climate change from space: Design of climate observing and monitoring systems from space must ensure the establishment of global, long-term climate

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D. Brent McRoberts
and
John W. Nielsen-Gammon

1. Introduction The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) subdivides each of the 48 conterminous states in the United States into climate divisions, regions considered to contain a relatively homogeneous climate within their boundaries ( Guttman and Quayle 1996 ). Monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and derived climate products are calculated for each climate division for the period 1895–present. NCDC climate division average precipitation (CDP) values are calculated on a monthly basis

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Carlo Buontempo
,
Samantha N. Burgess
,
Dick Dee
,
Bernard Pinty
,
Jean-Noël Thépaut
,
Michel Rixen
,
Samuel Almond
,
David Armstrong
,
Anca Brookshaw
,
Angel Lopez Alos
,
Bill Bell
,
Cedric Bergeron
,
Chiara Cagnazzo
,
Edward Comyn-Platt
,
Eduardo Damasio-Da-Costa
,
Anabelle Guillory
,
Hans Hersbach
,
András Horányi
,
Julien Nicolas
,
Andre Obregon
,
Eduardo Penabad Ramos
,
Baudouin Raoult
,
Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater
,
Adrian Simmons
,
Cornel Soci
,
Martin Suttie
,
Freja Vamborg
,
James Varndell
,
Stijn Vermoote
,
Xiaobo Yang
, and
Juan Garcés de Marcilla

The impact of climate change on society and the environment is pervasive and profound. In the context of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement and the Global Stocktake, the need to monitor the effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation efforts has become even more acute. Advances in climate science, supported by a vast amount of observational data, have made it possible to understand, analyze, and model the changing climate and its impacts with a steadily increasing degree of confidence ( IPCC 2021

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