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C. D. Hewitt, F. Guglielmo, S. Joussaume, J. Bessembinder, I. Christel, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, V. Djurdjevic, N. Garrett, E. Kjellström, A. Krzic, M. Máñez Costa, and A. L. St. Clair

Climate varies naturally on a range of time scales, as evidenced in observational records and proxy records for periods predating observations. In addition to the natural variability, there is overwhelming evidence that climate is now also changing due to human emissions of greenhouse gases, as emphasized for example in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Assessment Reports, the most recent being the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5; IPCC 2013 ) with the Sixth Assessment Report

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Yujie Wang, Lianchun Song, Chris Hewitt, Nicola Golding, and Zili Huang

1. Introduction The climate is of critical importance to social and economic development and human well-being. Against the background of climate change and increasing vulnerability and exposure, society is facing unprecedented challenges in terms of climate risks ( IPCC 2014 ). To manage and reduce climate risks as well as improve societal resilience, the World Meteorological Organization initiated the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 ( Hewitt et al. 2012 ). In recent years

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Timothy M. Merlis, Isaac M. Held, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Fanrong Zeng, and Larry W. Horowitz

1. Introduction Constraining the magnitude of the response of surface temperature to changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiative forcing agents is a central goal of climate research. A substantial amount of research has addressed the magnitude of the equilibrium response of the global-mean surface temperature to doubled carbon dioxide concentration, the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). However, the climate system, and the oceans in particular, will be out of

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Kyle C. Armour, Cecilia M. Bitz, and Gerard H. Roe

1. Introduction The response of the earth's climate to changes in forcing is often characterized in terms of the equilibrium climate sensitivity , the global equilibrium surface warming under a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 . This definition has facilitated direct comparison of different estimates of climate change, be they instrumental, proxy, or model derived (e.g., Hegerl et al. 2007 ; Allen et al. 2007 ; Edwards et al. 2007 ; Knutti and Hegerl 2008 , and references therein). A closely

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Ayansina Ayanlade and Margaret Olusolape Jegede

1. Introduction The world entirely is currently witnessing climatic change. Climate change affects all facets of human endeavor ( IPCC 2007 ; Bates et al. 2008 ; Lesnoff et al. 2012 ). Understanding the impacts of climate change and its risks has been the principal focus of research at both global and local scales. Recent climate change studies have shown that climate change will affect every part of the socioeconomic activities of humans, including the environment where humans live and the

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D. Brent McRoberts and John W. Nielsen-Gammon

1. Introduction The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) subdivides each of the 48 conterminous states in the United States into climate divisions, regions considered to contain a relatively homogeneous climate within their boundaries ( Guttman and Quayle 1996 ). Monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and derived climate products are calculated for each climate division for the period 1895–present. NCDC climate division average precipitation (CDP) values are calculated on a monthly basis

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Stephen S. Leroy, James G. Anderson, and George Ohring

1. Introduction The U.S. National Research Council, in its decadal survey of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ( National Research Council, Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space 2007 ), has called for the following new philosophy in monitoring climate change from space: Design of climate observing and monitoring systems from space must ensure the establishment of global, long-term climate

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Olivier Geoffroy and David Saint-Martin

1. Introduction The linear forcing–feedback framework has been proven successful in representing the joint evolution of the radiative imbalance and that of the global temperature change under an externally imposed radiative perturbation. It is widely used to constrain projections of future climate change. This framework assumes that the radiative response of the climate system scales instantaneously with the global-mean surface air temperature response through a constant parameter when

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Markus Huber, Irina Mahlstein, Martin Wild, John Fasullo, and Reto Knutti

1. Introduction The earth’s climate system is almost entirely driven by shortwave radiative energy coming from the sun. Although temperature and precipitation are the most widely recognized climate variables, it is basically the radiation with its energy flows and balances within the climate system that determines the earth’s climate and thus drives its various internal processes and feedbacks. Changes in the concentration of atmospheric constituents result in a perturbation of the earth

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J. Scott Hosking, Andrew Orr, Gareth J. Marshall, John Turner, and Tony Phillips

locations of the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas are marked, as well as that of the Ross Ice Shelf. Also marked are the regions of Ellsworth Land and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula, which border them. ABSL variability strongly influences the climate of West Antarctica by controlling the meridional component of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, with consequences for 10-m meridional wind velocity (V10), near-surface (2 m) air temperature (hereafter referred to

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