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Michael J. Lynch, Paul B. Stretesky, and Michael A. Long

1. Introduction Research on the social impact of anthropogenic climate change suggests that long-term temperature increases could contribute 35 000 murders to the U.S. crime rate over the next 90 years ( Ranson 2014 ). This finding and similar empirical studies are attracting significant attention among criminologists ( Agnew 2012 ; Pease and Farrell 2011 ; White 2016 ). Agnew (2012) , for example, argued that climate change might affect the temperature–crime relationship through several

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

1. Introduction Is climate change visible? The question is far from straightforward, animating citizens and scholars alike and provoking sharply divergent answers from different individuals and communities: “[N]o-one can see climate changing or feel it happening.” —Mike Hulme, geographer ( Hulme 2009 , p. 196) “Native nations of the Arctic and Subarctic are already feeling catastrophic effects of warmer temperatures, in the melting of sea ice, permafrost, and glaciers, and increases in fires

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Ayansina Ayanlade and Margaret Olusolape Jegede

1. Introduction The world entirely is currently witnessing climatic change. Climate change affects all facets of human endeavor ( IPCC 2007 ; Bates et al. 2008 ; Lesnoff et al. 2012 ). Understanding the impacts of climate change and its risks has been the principal focus of research at both global and local scales. Recent climate change studies have shown that climate change will affect every part of the socioeconomic activities of humans, including the environment where humans live and the

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Filippo Giorgi

1. Introduction It is a remarkable property of the climate change signal simulated by current atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) that various surface climate variables show regional patterns of change that are very similar across different scenarios and time slices (e.g., Mitchell et al. 1999 ; Mitchell 2003 ; Räisänen et al. 2004 ; Giorgi 2005a ). Among such variables are mean surface air temperature and, somewhat to a lesser extent, precipitation. Although the patterns

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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

assessment of the potential impacts of global change on the state of surface water resources is required. Impacts of climate change on freshwater biota can already be observed today. Effects on community structure, food web dynamics, and life cycle of different freshwater organisms have been found ( Schindler 1997 ; Poff et al. 2002 ; Wrona et al. 2006 ). Durance and Ormerod (2007) published a decline in macroinvertebrate abundance at a small catchment in Wales with increasing stream temperatures

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Gerrit Hansen, Maximilian Auffhammer, and Andrew R. Solow

1. Introduction Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme weather events like intense hurricanes ( Webster et al. 2005 ) and heat waves ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ). It is natural, therefore, to ask when an event such as the European heat wave in 2003 or Hurricane Sandy in 2012 occurs if it can be attributed to climate change. This attribution question has gained some prominence with efforts to assess liability for weather-related damages due to climate change ( Allen 2003

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Margaret V. du Bray, Amber Wutich, and Alexandra Brewis

1. Introduction Climate scientists argue that individuals and communities do not yet feel the results of climate change ( Akerlof et al. 2013 ), explaining why rallying people to engage in mitigation efforts and investments is so difficult. Yet, a range of studies focused on other types of weather-related anticipated and experienced disasters, such as drought, clearly demonstrate that climate-related phenomena can elicit strong emotional reactions ( Sartore et al. 2007 , 2008a , b ; Bell et

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H. G. Hidalgo, T. Das, M. D. Dettinger, D. R. Cayan, D. W. Pierce, T. P. Barnett, G. Bala, A. Mirin, A. W. Wood, C. Bonfils, B. D. Santer, and T. Nozawa

1. Introduction Previous studies have found hydroclimatological changes in the last 50 yr in the western United States. The changes are evident in the timing of spring runoff ( Roos 1987 , 1991 ; Wahl 1992 ; Aguado et al. 1992 ; Pupacko 1993 ; Dettinger and Cayan 1995 ; Regonda et al. 2005 ; Stewart et al. 2005 ), in the fraction of rain versus snow ( Knowles et al. 2006 ), in the amount of water contained in the snow ( Mote 2003 ), and in climate-sensitive biological variables ( Cayan

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D. Brent McRoberts and John W. Nielsen-Gammon

index (PDSI) use historical climate division data to make real-time assessments. The PDSI and other drought indicators are sensitive to changes in the mean and variance of historical climate division data and rely on accurate historical data to correctly diagnose drought. But there are recognized fundamental flaws that make the climate division data unreliable for these purposes. A major weakness of the currently available climate division dataset is that the network of stations used to calculate

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Toshichika Iizumi, Masayuki Yokozawa, Yousay Hayashi, and Fujio Kimura

1. Introduction The rice yield may change as a result of changes in climate and the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration under climate change conditions induced by increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., Baker et al. 1990 ; Horie et al. 1995 ; Ziska et al. 1997 ). Since rice is a staple crop in Southeast Asia and eastern Asia, including Japan, a reliable assessment of the impact of climate change on the rice yield is required to determine what countermeasures are

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