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Michael J. Lynch
,
Paul B. Stretesky
, and
Michael A. Long

1. Introduction Research on the social impact of anthropogenic climate change suggests that long-term temperature increases could contribute 35 000 murders to the U.S. crime rate over the next 90 years ( Ranson 2014 ). This finding and similar empirical studies are attracting significant attention among criminologists ( Agnew 2012 ; Pease and Farrell 2011 ; White 2016 ). Agnew (2012) , for example, argued that climate change might affect the temperature–crime relationship through several

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

1. Introduction Is climate change visible? The question is far from straightforward, animating citizens and scholars alike and provoking sharply divergent answers from different individuals and communities: “[N]o-one can see climate changing or feel it happening.” —Mike Hulme, geographer ( Hulme 2009 , p. 196) “Native nations of the Arctic and Subarctic are already feeling catastrophic effects of warmer temperatures, in the melting of sea ice, permafrost, and glaciers, and increases in fires

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Ayansina Ayanlade
and
Margaret Olusolape Jegede

1. Introduction The world entirely is currently witnessing climatic change. Climate change affects all facets of human endeavor ( IPCC 2007 ; Bates et al. 2008 ; Lesnoff et al. 2012 ). Understanding the impacts of climate change and its risks has been the principal focus of research at both global and local scales. Recent climate change studies have shown that climate change will affect every part of the socioeconomic activities of humans, including the environment where humans live and the

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Filippo Giorgi

1. Introduction It is a remarkable property of the climate change signal simulated by current atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) that various surface climate variables show regional patterns of change that are very similar across different scenarios and time slices (e.g., Mitchell et al. 1999 ; Mitchell 2003 ; Räisänen et al. 2004 ; Giorgi 2005a ). Among such variables are mean surface air temperature and, somewhat to a lesser extent, precipitation. Although the patterns

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Manuel Punzet
,
Frank Voß
,
Anja Voß
,
Ellen Kynast
, and
Ilona Bärlund

assessment of the potential impacts of global change on the state of surface water resources is required. Impacts of climate change on freshwater biota can already be observed today. Effects on community structure, food web dynamics, and life cycle of different freshwater organisms have been found ( Schindler 1997 ; Poff et al. 2002 ; Wrona et al. 2006 ). Durance and Ormerod (2007) published a decline in macroinvertebrate abundance at a small catchment in Wales with increasing stream temperatures

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Margaret E. Mooney
,
Cathy Middlecamp
,
Jonathan Martin
, and
Steve A. Ackerman

article investigates behavior change in undergraduate students at the University of Wisconsin–Madison inspired, at least in part, by knowledge gains regarding the science of climate change. Fig. 1. UW Climate Change Elevator Speeches online (with permission) at https://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/education/AOS102/ . The University of Wisconsin–Madison (UW) has offered an online course on Climate and Climate Change (AOS 102) to undergraduates since 2013. Course content is designed to convey

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Gerrit Hansen
,
Maximilian Auffhammer
, and
Andrew R. Solow

1. Introduction Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme weather events like intense hurricanes ( Webster et al. 2005 ) and heat waves ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ). It is natural, therefore, to ask when an event such as the European heat wave in 2003 or Hurricane Sandy in 2012 occurs if it can be attributed to climate change. This attribution question has gained some prominence with efforts to assess liability for weather-related damages due to climate change ( Allen 2003

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Margaret V. du Bray
,
Amber Wutich
, and
Alexandra Brewis

1. Introduction Climate scientists argue that individuals and communities do not yet feel the results of climate change ( Akerlof et al. 2013 ), explaining why rallying people to engage in mitigation efforts and investments is so difficult. Yet, a range of studies focused on other types of weather-related anticipated and experienced disasters, such as drought, clearly demonstrate that climate-related phenomena can elicit strong emotional reactions ( Sartore et al. 2007 , 2008a , b ; Bell et

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H. G. Hidalgo
,
T. Das
,
M. D. Dettinger
,
D. R. Cayan
,
D. W. Pierce
,
T. P. Barnett
,
G. Bala
,
A. Mirin
,
A. W. Wood
,
C. Bonfils
,
B. D. Santer
, and
T. Nozawa

1. Introduction Previous studies have found hydroclimatological changes in the last 50 yr in the western United States. The changes are evident in the timing of spring runoff ( Roos 1987 , 1991 ; Wahl 1992 ; Aguado et al. 1992 ; Pupacko 1993 ; Dettinger and Cayan 1995 ; Regonda et al. 2005 ; Stewart et al. 2005 ), in the fraction of rain versus snow ( Knowles et al. 2006 ), in the amount of water contained in the snow ( Mote 2003 ), and in climate-sensitive biological variables ( Cayan

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Sjoukje Philip
,
Sarah F. Kew
,
Geert Jan van Oldenborgh
,
Emma Aalbers
,
Robert Vautard
,
Friederike Otto
,
Karsten Haustein
,
Florence Habets
, and
Roop Singh

), which is assumed appropriate for these block maxima. The event itself is excluded from the fits. To account for possible changes, we scale the distribution with a measure of climate change, for which we take the 4-yr smoothed global mean temperature anomaly T ′. The smoothing is introduced to remove the fluctuations in the global mean temperature due to ENSO, which are unforced. This measure was already used in van Oldenborgh (2007) . [Taking other measures, such as the CO 2 concentration or

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