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Alan K. Betts

1. Introduction The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases, coming primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, is the likely driver of rapid climate change in recent decades ( Pachauri and Reisinger 2007 ). However, there are considerable uncertainties in future regional climate scenarios. In addition, global indicators of ongoing climate change, such as the melting of the Arctic sea ice in recent decades ( ), are remote to most communities, and they are not

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Ayansina Ayanlade and Margaret Olusolape Jegede

1. Introduction The world entirely is currently witnessing climatic change. Climate change affects all facets of human endeavor ( IPCC 2007 ; Bates et al. 2008 ; Lesnoff et al. 2012 ). Understanding the impacts of climate change and its risks has been the principal focus of research at both global and local scales. Recent climate change studies have shown that climate change will affect every part of the socioeconomic activities of humans, including the environment where humans live and the

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Michael J. Lynch, Paul B. Stretesky, and Michael A. Long

1. Introduction Research on the social impact of anthropogenic climate change suggests that long-term temperature increases could contribute 35 000 murders to the U.S. crime rate over the next 90 years ( Ranson 2014 ). This finding and similar empirical studies are attracting significant attention among criminologists ( Agnew 2012 ; Pease and Farrell 2011 ; White 2016 ). Agnew (2012) , for example, argued that climate change might affect the temperature–crime relationship through several

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David W. J. Thompson and Susan Solomon

recent climate change experiments exhibit cooling in the tropical stratosphere, not from decreases in ozone there, but from increases in the model stratospheric overturning circulation (e.g., Rind et al. 1998 ; Butchart and Scaife 2001 ; Eichelberger and Hartmann 2005 ; Li et al. 2008 ). The implications of our results for those studies are discussed in the conclusions. Here we exploit the excellent space/time coverage afforded by total column ozone and the relationships between column ozone and

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

1. Introduction Is climate change visible? The question is far from straightforward, animating citizens and scholars alike and provoking sharply divergent answers from different individuals and communities: “[N]o-one can see climate changing or feel it happening.” —Mike Hulme, geographer ( Hulme 2009 , p. 196) “Native nations of the Arctic and Subarctic are already feeling catastrophic effects of warmer temperatures, in the melting of sea ice, permafrost, and glaciers, and increases in fires

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Filippo Giorgi

1. Introduction It is a remarkable property of the climate change signal simulated by current atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) that various surface climate variables show regional patterns of change that are very similar across different scenarios and time slices (e.g., Mitchell et al. 1999 ; Mitchell 2003 ; Räisänen et al. 2004 ; Giorgi 2005a ). Among such variables are mean surface air temperature and, somewhat to a lesser extent, precipitation. Although the patterns

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D. Brent McRoberts and John W. Nielsen-Gammon

index (PDSI) use historical climate division data to make real-time assessments. The PDSI and other drought indicators are sensitive to changes in the mean and variance of historical climate division data and rely on accurate historical data to correctly diagnose drought. But there are recognized fundamental flaws that make the climate division data unreliable for these purposes. A major weakness of the currently available climate division dataset is that the network of stations used to calculate

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Alexis Hannart and Philippe Naveau

1. Introduction Investigating causal links between climate forcings and the observed climate evolution over the instrumental era represents a significant part of the research effort on climate. Studies addressing these aspects in the context of climate change have been providing, over the past decades, an ever-increasing level of causal evidence that is important for decision-makers in international discussions on mitigation policy. In particular, these studies have produced far-reaching causal

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Gerrit Hansen, Maximilian Auffhammer, and Andrew R. Solow

1. Introduction Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme weather events like intense hurricanes ( Webster et al. 2005 ) and heat waves ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ). It is natural, therefore, to ask when an event such as the European heat wave in 2003 or Hurricane Sandy in 2012 occurs if it can be attributed to climate change. This attribution question has gained some prominence with efforts to assess liability for weather-related damages due to climate change ( Allen 2003

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John Sansom and James A. Renwick

1. Introduction a. Background Expected average increases in global mean temperature during the twenty-first century have been assessed to lie between 1.4° and 5.8°C, relative to 1990 levels ( Cubasch et al. 2001 ). In global terms, the hydrological cycle is expected to increase in intensity with rising temperatures. All general circulation model (GCM) simulations used in the last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment of climate change ( Cubasch et al. 2001 ) show an increase in

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