Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 38,189 items for :

  • Climate model x
  • All content x
Clear All
Ferdinand Baer, Houjun Wang, Joseph J. Tribbia, and Aimé Fournier

1. Introduction A primary objective of the current climate community and its sponsors is to create accurate predictions of future climate on decadal to centennial time scales and a broad spectrum of space scales by improving model-component performance and accuracy, by implementing efficient strategies to coupled model components, and by maximizing throughput on state-of-the-art computers capable of exceptional peak speeds. To assist in this endeavor, we have developed a climate model entitled

Full access
Mônica Carneiro Alves Senna, Marcos Heil Costa, Lucía Iracema Chipponelli Pinto, Hewlley Maria Acioli Imbuzeiro, Luciana Mara Freitas Diniz, and Gabrielle Ferreira Pires

structure may alter the fluxes of energy, water, momentum, CO 2 , and other atmospheric gases, consequently affecting climate ( Pielke et al. 1998 ; Bonan 2002 ; Foley et al. 2003 ). The interactive coupling of terrestrial ecosystems and climate has been examined by fully integrated dynamic global vegetation models within global climate models ( Betts et al. 1997 ; Foley et al. 1998 ; Foley et al. 2000 ; Bonan et al. 2003 ; Krinner et al. 2005 ). In these coupled models, vegetation growth and

Full access
Christopher Pennell and Thomas Reichler

1. Introduction Over two dozen different climate models contribute to the ongoing mission of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), whose aim is to provide reliable estimates of future climate change to the public. The projections in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), the IPCC’s most recent, were mostly based on simple multimodel averages over the different participating models ( Meehl et al. 2007a ). The underlying assumption here and in similar studies is that models are more

Full access
Robert Schoetter, Peter Hoffmann, Diana Rechid, and K. Heinke Schlünzen

1. Introduction Climate model output is increasingly used in climate change impact, vulnerability, and adaptation studies for statistical downscaling (e.g., Wilby 2003 ; Hoffmann et al. 2012 ) and statistical–dynamical downscaling (e.g., Fuentes and Heimann 2000 ) and for the provision of physically consistent forcing data for impact models like hydrological models (e.g., van Pelt et al. 2009 ), ecosystem models (e.g., Huntley et al. 2008 ), and biometeorological models (e.g., Muthers et

Full access
Piers Mde F. Forster and Karl E. Taylor

1. Introduction With both the increase in computer power and a more complete representation of the many interactions in the climate system, climate models have become increasingly complex. Consequently, understanding their responses can often be just as difficult as understanding climate change in the real world. Radiative forcing and climate sensitivity were key concepts developed in the early days of climate modeling to aid understanding of the global mean temperature response ( Houghton et

Full access
Alexander Sen Gupta, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Jaclyn N. Brown, and Didier Monselesan

numerical errors may exist in the model that mean that heat or moisture is not fully conserved (e.g., Lucarini and Ragone 2011 ; Liepert and Previdi 2012 ). In these cases, a model may drift from its initial state toward a quasi-steady state over some period of time (although in the case of nonconserved heat or water a steady solution may not be attainable). The time scale over which the climate system adjusts will be determined by the time it takes for anomalies to be advected or mixed through the

Full access
H.-Y. Ma, S. Xie, S. A. Klein, K. D. Williams, J. S. Boyle, S. Bony, H. Douville, S. Fermepin, B. Medeiros, S. Tyteca, M. Watanabe, and D. Williamson

1. Introduction Despite the significant efforts made in climate modeling since phase 3 of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3), large systematic errors in precipitation, clouds, and water vapor remain in the simulated climate mean state for majority of the climate models in the recent CMIP5 ( Jiang et al. 2012 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Klein et al. 2013 ). Understanding the origin of these systematic errors is challenging because nonlinear feedback

Full access
Jouni Räisänen and Jussi S. Ylhäisi

1. Introduction Most global climate models (GCMs) currently have a horizontal resolution of 100–400 km (e.g., Meehl et al. 2007a ). This grid spacing defines the smallest scale for which direct GCM output can be used for making projections of climate change and for other purposes. Yet, it is not necessarily wise to use GCM output down to the nominal grid resolution. From simple numerical arguments, model results are expected to deteriorate in accuracy as the gridbox scale is approached

Full access
Paulo Nobre, Leo S. P. Siqueira, Roberto A. F. de Almeida, Marta Malagutti, Emanuel Giarolla, Guilherme P. Castelão, Marcus J. Bottino, Paulo Kubota, Silvio N. Figueroa, Mabel C. Costa, Manoel Baptista Jr., Luiz Irber Jr., and Gabriel G. Marcondes

the influence of atmospheric GHG concentration on the climate system is a must and has been delved in by several research groups worldwide. Such scrutiny is presently applied to matters ranging from the development of state-of-the-art coupled climate models up to complex earth system models (ESM) that incorporate the complexity of the many components of the earth system. Examples of such complex system models are those developed by the largest climate research centers in the world, such as the

Full access
Peter J. Lawrence and Thomas N. Chase

1. Introduction In our recent paper Lawrence and Chase (2007) , we developed new Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) consistent current day land surface parameters for the Community Land Model, version 3 (CLM3), to be used with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3). The average climate simulated in CLM3 and CCSM3 with the new MODIS land surface parameters has year-round reduced precipitation, dryer soils, and reduced evapotranspiration compared to the climate simulated

Full access