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Yujie Wang, Lianchun Song, Chris Hewitt, Nicola Golding, and Zili Huang

1. Introduction The climate is of critical importance to social and economic development and human well-being. Against the background of climate change and increasing vulnerability and exposure, society is facing unprecedented challenges in terms of climate risks ( IPCC 2014 ). To manage and reduce climate risks as well as improve societal resilience, the World Meteorological Organization initiated the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 ( Hewitt et al. 2012 ). In recent years

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Juergen Weichselgartner and Berit Arheimer

1. Introduction The need of climate change adaptation (CCA) services became urgent with the Paris Agreement in 2015, where adaptation was highlighted as a pressing need alongside traditional mitigation measures ( UNFCCC 2015 ). Accordingly, the increasing number of scientific, political, and public efforts to develop and implement climate services has led to substantial achievements in this emerging field. Several models and frameworks to design and evaluate climate services have been proposed

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Mark S. Brooks

Engagement, entrepreneurship, and evaluation are the keys to innovative and transformative services that will help citizens, businesses, and governments manage climate risks. Theodore Levitt, an American economist said, “Just as energy is the basis of life itself, and ideas the source of innovation, so is innovation the vital spark of all human change, improvement and progress.” Virtually all economic growth since the 1700s is ultimately attributable to innovation ( Baumol 2002 ). There are two

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Wendy S. Parker and Greg Lusk

Climate services should consider not just what users want to know, but also which errors users particularly want to avoid. Climate services aim to provide “scientifically-based information and products that enhance users’ knowledge and understanding about the impacts of climate on their decisions and actions” ( AMS 2015 ). Increasingly, there are calls for collaborative approaches to the delivery of climate services, including approaches in which products are “co-produced” by providers and

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Rachel E. Riley

interpretation of the products. The evaluation methodology was not described in detail, however. Hawkins et al.’s (2017) evaluation is another example, which focused on how each Weather Forecast Office used the National Weather Service heat products rather than on how end users interpreted or used them. Furthermore, Guido et al. (2013) evaluated their monthly Drought Tracker climate summary product. The evaluation was not categorized as a particular subtype, but utility was mentioned as one of its

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Else J. M. Van Den Besselaar, Albert M. G. Klein Tank, Gerard Van Der Schrier, Mariama S. Abass, Omar Baddour, Aryan F.V. Van Engelen, Andrea Freire, Peer Hechler, Bayu Imbang Laksono, Iqbal, Rudmer Jilderda, Andre Kamga Foamouhoue, Arie Kattenberg, Robert Leander, Rodney Martínez Güingla, Albert S. Mhanda, Juan José Nieto, Sunaryo, Aris Suwondo, Yunus S. Swarinoto, and Gé Verver

MOTIVATION. The demand for information services on weather and climate is growing rapidly worldwide. In recognition of this, the World Climate Conference-3 in 2009 endorsed the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS), 1 a global partnership of governments and organizations that produces and uses climate information and services. GFCS seeks to enable researchers, producers, and users of information to join forces to improve the quality and quantity of climate services worldwide

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Toshichika Iizumi, Yuhei Takaya, Wonsik Kim, Toshiyuki Nakaegawa, and Shuhei Maeda

consistent comparison is available between statistical yield models relying on temperature and precipitation and those relying on climate indices. Yield models applicable to global crop forecasting depend on temperature and moisture forecasts (e.g., Iizumi et al. 2013 , 2018b ). This is the case for the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization and Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation Climate Center (NARO-APCC) Joint Crop Forecasting Service, which is in the test operation phase from June 2019

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Erik W. Kolstad, Oda N. Sofienlund, Hanna Kvamsås, Mathew A. Stiller-Reeve, Simon Neby, Øyvind Paasche, Marie Pontoppidan, Stefan P. Sobolowski, Håvard Haarstad, Stina E. Oseland, Lene Omdahl, and Snorre Waage

An honest reflection on experiences in a climate services project is provided, with concrete recommendations on how to put ideas of coproduction into practice. In September 2005, vast amounts of rain wreaked havoc along the western coast of Norway ( Stohl et al. 2008 ). Major flooding occurred in many locations, and a landslide in Bergen led to the deaths of 3 people (10 people were hospitalized and 225 people were evacuated) ( Lango 2011 ). This episode and others have raised the general

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Toward Regional Climate Services

The Role of NOAA's Regional Climate Centers

Arthur T. DeGaetano, Timothy J. Brown, Steven D. Hilberg, Kelly Redmond, Kevin Robbins, Peter Robinson, Martha Shulski, and Marjorie McGuirk

For 25 yr, the Regional Climate Center (RCC) program has provided climate services to six regions encompassing the United States. The service provided by the RCCs has evolved through this time to become an efficient, user-driven program that exemplifies many of the components that have been cited for effective national climate services. To illustrate the RCCs' role as operational climate service providers, a brief history of the program is presented with recent examples of RCC innovations in the provision and creation of data products and decision tools, computer infrastructure, and the integration of climate data across networks. These strengths complement the missions of other federal climate service providers and regional and state-based programs, such as the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments, state climatologist programs, and National Weather Service climate services program managers and local focal points with which the RCCs actively partner.

Building on this expertise, a vision for the RCC role in climate services during the next quarter century is presented. This strategy includes five main components encompassing 1) operational linkage of an array of climate data sources with climate products, tools, and monitoring systems; 2) engagement of new and existing climate service partners to reduce the risk associated with climate impacts; 3) implementation of innovative user-driven approaches to regional and local climate services; 4) climate data stewardship; and 5) scientifically sound assessments and solutions to climate-related problems through active stakeholder collaboration and engagement. These elements will be equally applicable and important to decisions related to the historical climate record, real-time interannual climate variations, or future climate change assessment and adaptation activities.

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C. D. Hewitt, E. Allis, S. J. Mason, M. Muth, R. Pulwarty, J. Shumake-Guillemot, A. Bucher, M. Brunet, A. M. Fischer, A. M. Hama, R. K. Kolli, F. Lucio, O. Ndiaye, and B. Tapia

future. Such climate information includes data, knowledge, and sectoral information on impacts and risks. We refer to the provision and use of such information as climate services. Three World Climate Conferences (WCCs; summarized below) held over the past 40 years have each led to landmark global climate initiatives of key societal significance laying the foundation for the development of climate services, based on the activities and leadership from a number of programs, initiatives, and individuals

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