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Mateusz Taszarek
and
Harold E. Brooks

significant challenge to create tornado climatologies for different European countries. Because of problems related to collecting data on their occurrence, it has to be accepted that climatological results will always be uncertain. Nevertheless, knowing the primary modes of spatial and temporal variability can help various groups such as weather forecasters, emergency managers, insurance companies, and the public to be better prepared ( Brooks et al. 2003a ). In the twentieth century, tornadoes in Europe

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Jian-Jian Wang
,
Robert F. Adler
,
George J. Huffman
, and
David Bolvin

1. Introduction The first-time use of both active and passive microwave instruments on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, launched in late 1997) has made TRMM the foremost satellite for the study of precipitation in the tropics. One of the key goals of TRMM has been to define the spatial and seasonal climatological rainfall in the tropics as accurately as possible in order to quantify this key component of the hydrological cycle. TRMM’s instrument complement, its precessing

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J. Brotzge
,
S. Erickson
, and
H. Brooks

predictability at those scales. The third scenario reflects the difficulty and resources required for thorough tornado verification. The purpose of this study is to analyze a 5-yr climatology of tornado false alarms as one step toward better understanding some of the underlying causes on why these warnings were issued. This study examines the trends in tornado warning FARs according to the diurnal and seasonal influences, geographic region and weather forecast office (WFO), distance from radar, county

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Artur Surowiecki
and
Mateusz Taszarek

constructing climatologies of convective phenomena. However, the disadvantage of a radar-based approach is a more subjective identification and classification process ( Jirak et al. 2003 ) that is affected by the varying quality of radar data (e.g., as a function of distance to the radar site). This issue may lead to the necessity of a manual identification of MCSs. In this context, satellite-based climatologies offer more spatially homogeneous results but provide less information about system morphology

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Mateusz Taszarek
,
Bartosz Czernecki
, and
Aneta Kozioł

improve weather forecasting, and also can help urban planners, insurance companies, and the public to be better prepared ( Brooks et al. 2003a ). For decades the main climatological research into thunderstorm spatial and temporary occurrence was based on observations at meteorological stations. Although human observations allow one to analyze long-term changes in the number of thunderstorm days [100-yr climatologies: Changnon and Changnon (2001) ; Bielec-Bąkowska (2003) ], they cannot estimate the

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Abdullah Kahraman
and
Paul M. Markowski

1. Introduction This paper presents what is believed to be the most comprehensive climatology of tornadoes in Turkey to date. [The only other known compilation is available on the Turkish Meteorological Services Web page (in Turkish) at http://www.dmi.gov.tr/FILES/arastirma/afetler/hortum.pdf . It consists of 31 tornadoes recorded between 1940 and 2010.] The climatology spans the years 1818–2013. Tornado climatologies recently have been published for several European countries, including

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Jenni Rauhala
,
Harold E. Brooks
, and
David M. Schultz

occurrence and threat of severe weather. This appreciation has led to several studies on severe weather in Finland: a climatology of mesoscale convective systems ( Punkka and Bister 2005 ), a case study of a severe thunderstorm outbreak ( Punkka et al. 2006 ), micrometeorological measurements of a microburst ( Järvi et al. 2007 ), a severe hail climatology ( Tuovinen et al. 2009 ), and several case studies of tornadoes (e.g., Teittinen et al. 2006 ; Teittinen and Mäkelä 2008 ; Outinen and Teittinen

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Margo S. Andrews
,
Vittorio A. Gensini
,
Alex M. Haberlie
,
Walker S. Ashley
,
Allison C. Michaelis
, and
Mateusz Taszarek

1. Introduction and background The elevated mixed layer’s (EML’s) influence on the severe convective storm (SCS) climatology in the contiguous United States (CONUS) was identified nearly seven decades ago by Fawbush and Miller (1954) . A function of the unique combination of topography and airmass source regions present in North America, the EML originates as a well-mixed ( dθ / dz ≈ 0), deep planetary boundary layer (PBL) with high potential temperature due to intense surface heating

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Amanda K. Kis
and
Jerry M. Straka

February 2008. While the increased vulnerability of humans to nocturnal tornadoes relative to daytime tornadoes is partly due to a lack of public awareness at night of impending hazardous weather conditions ( Ashley et al. 2008 ), scientific knowledge of nocturnal tornadoes is also lacking. Despite a growing collection of tornado climatologies geared toward improving operational forecasting of severe weather, few of these studies discriminate between daytime and nocturnal tornadoes, with the exception

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Mateusz Taszarek
,
John Allen
,
Tomáš Púčik
,
Pieter Groenemeijer
,
Bartosz Czernecki
,
Leszek Kolendowicz
,
Kostas Lagouvardos
,
Vasiliki Kotroni
, and
Wolfgang Schulz

1. Introduction Thunderstorms, particularly severe events accompanied by large hail, damaging wind gusts, tornadoes, or flash floods, pose a considerable risk to society ( Brooks 2013 ; Papagiannaki et al. 2013 ; Terti et al. 2017 ; Papagiannaki et al. 2017 ). Therefore, knowledge of their local climatology is not only important for weather forecasting purposes, but also for risk assessment by emergency managers or the (re)insurance industry. Another pressing question is whether such

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