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Jian-Jian Wang, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, and David Bolvin

1. Introduction The first-time use of both active and passive microwave instruments on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, launched in late 1997) has made TRMM the foremost satellite for the study of precipitation in the tropics. One of the key goals of TRMM has been to define the spatial and seasonal climatological rainfall in the tropics as accurately as possible in order to quantify this key component of the hydrological cycle. TRMM’s instrument complement, its precessing

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Abdullah Kahraman and Paul M. Markowski

1. Introduction This paper presents what is believed to be the most comprehensive climatology of tornadoes in Turkey to date. [The only other known compilation is available on the Turkish Meteorological Services Web page (in Turkish) at . It consists of 31 tornadoes recorded between 1940 and 2010.] The climatology spans the years 1818–2013. Tornado climatologies recently have been published for several European countries, including

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Jenni Rauhala, Harold E. Brooks, and David M. Schultz

occurrence and threat of severe weather. This appreciation has led to several studies on severe weather in Finland: a climatology of mesoscale convective systems ( Punkka and Bister 2005 ), a case study of a severe thunderstorm outbreak ( Punkka et al. 2006 ), micrometeorological measurements of a microburst ( Järvi et al. 2007 ), a severe hail climatology ( Tuovinen et al. 2009 ), and several case studies of tornadoes (e.g., Teittinen et al. 2006 ; Teittinen and Mäkelä 2008 ; Outinen and Teittinen

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Amanda K. Kis and Jerry M. Straka

February 2008. While the increased vulnerability of humans to nocturnal tornadoes relative to daytime tornadoes is partly due to a lack of public awareness at night of impending hazardous weather conditions ( Ashley et al. 2008 ), scientific knowledge of nocturnal tornadoes is also lacking. Despite a growing collection of tornado climatologies geared toward improving operational forecasting of severe weather, few of these studies discriminate between daytime and nocturnal tornadoes, with the exception

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David M. Gaffin and Stephen S. Parker

to around the 850-hPa level. The higher frequency of significant tornadoes near the southern Appalachian region compared with other major mountainous regions of the western and northeast United States provides a good natural laboratory to investigate the spatial distribution of tornadoes in comparison with the large-scale terrain. Because significant tornadoes are responsible for most tornado deaths and are more likely to have been documented in the climatological record than weaker tornadoes

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Etienne Dunn-Sigouin, Seok-Woo Son, and Hai Lin

1. Introduction Atmospheric blocking is one of the most striking features of extratropical low-frequency variability. A synoptic-scale high pressure system, often accompanied by low pressure system at lower latitudes, occasionally becomes quasi stationary for several days to a few weeks against the background flow. This quasi-stationary system, referred to as a block, interrupts the eastward propagation of synoptic disturbances by reversing the climatological zonal flow. As a blocking high is

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Mateusz Taszarek and Harold E. Brooks

significant challenge to create tornado climatologies for different European countries. Because of problems related to collecting data on their occurrence, it has to be accepted that climatological results will always be uncertain. Nevertheless, knowing the primary modes of spatial and temporal variability can help various groups such as weather forecasters, emergency managers, insurance companies, and the public to be better prepared ( Brooks et al. 2003a ). In the twentieth century, tornadoes in Europe

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Kelsey J. Mulder and David M. Schultz

Birmingham tornado on 28 July 2005 resulted in 19 injuries and approximately £40 million ($68 million) in damages ( Russell 2010 ). Because tornadoes pose a threat to human health and property, the knowledge of when, why, where, and under which conditions tornadoes occur has great relevance. Although tornadoes have been reported on every continent except Antarctica, the conditions under which tornadoes are produced may not be the same everywhere ( Brooks 2009 ). This makes tornado climatologies conducted

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Kirsty E. Hanley, Stephen E. Belcher, and Peter P. Sullivan

probability of swell is more than 95%. In contrast, Chen et al. (2002) find that wind waves occur most frequently in the midlatitudes, decreasing to a minimum at the equator. The goal of this paper is to use the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) wave dataset to develop a new climatology of wind–wave interaction, as diagnosed by the inverse wave age. The availability of wave data makes it possible to construct a global climatology of wave processes and

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Barry A. Klinger, Bohua Huang, Ben Kirtman, Paul Schopf, and Jiande Wang

( Kraus and Businger 1994 , their section 5.2). While the wind influences all three processes (momentum transfer, heat transfer, and turbulent energy production), the way in which it influences each one has important, unique features. The purpose of this note is to highlight a careful treatment of wind climatology based on these features. There is a nonlinear relationship between wind velocity measured at some standard height (generally 10 m) and wind stress τ on the ocean surface. However, the

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