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Jianqiong Zhan
,
Wenyuan Chang
,
Wei Li
,
Yanming Wang
,
Liqi Chen
, and
Jinpei Yan

in diameter) concentrations exceeded 200 μg m −3 in the NCP and YRD regions ( Yu et al. 2014 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ), extremely high PM levels were also observed in Fujian Province, with PM 2.5 concentrations up to 213 μ g m −3 in Xiamen ( Yan et al. 2015 ). Meteorological patterns play a vital role in the transport and mixing of particulate matter ( Fast et al. 2012 , 2014 ). Previous studies have observed aerosol chemical composition in southeastern coastal China and then demonstrated the

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Chibuike Onwukwe
and
Peter L. Jackson

valley and the coastal channel. This study conducts high-resolution simulations of meteorological variables with the WRF Model, version 4.0, and the fifth major global reanalysis product of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA5), with a focus on evaluating performance of different PBL formulations. Its objectives are to quantify modeling uncertainties and to qualify mixing and dispersion capabilities of alternative physical schemes. The remainder of this paper is organized as

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Alexander R. Davies
,
Joseph P. Smith
,
David S. Mandell
,
George Davis
, and
Forest Y. Wan

hot spot for accelerating instances of coastal nuisance flooding, is an ideal location to study the relationship between directional wind forcing and WLAs because of 1) the orientation of the coastline relative to the prevailing wind directions and 2) the availability of close-proximity water level and meteorological data records (∼1 km apart along the Severn River). In this study we identify a relationship between short-duration (hours) directional meteorological wind forcing and WLAs over the

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Dörte Wagner
,
Birger Tinz
, and
Hans von Storch

1. Introduction Historical climate data gain in importance in relation to climatological investigations. Especially long-term time series of historical observation data are able to show the changes of meteorological values. Long-term time series of meteorological data often suffer from inhomogeneity for wind research (e.g., Lindenberg et al. 2012 ). Furthermore, historical data are needed as input for global and regional reanalysis datasets ( Dee et al. 2011 ; Cram et al. 2015 ) and also for

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Werner Alpers
,
Jen-Ping Chen
,
Chia-Jung Pi
, and
I-I. Lin

was closely related to the coastal offshore flow developing at night. Such frontal lines are sometimes also observed on ERS1 / 2 SAR and Envisat ASAR images when the meteorological conditions are favorable for the development of strong katabatic winds. Katabatic winds are encountered only late in the evening, at night, and early in the morning, and only when radiation weather prevails (i.e., when the sky is cloud free or almost cloud free such that radiation cooling can take place over the

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G. L. Geernaert

asymptotically approach zero for longer fetch, that is, for offshore-blowing winds only. The W terms of both Eqs. (12) and (13) are now examined. In the ideal situation, to evaluate these terms properly one would require real-world observations or would alternatively use a meteorological model that has been validated in a given coastal region of interest. For this analysis and as a starting point, results of the Linearized Computational Model (LINCOM; Astrup et al. 1996 ) are applied to obtain

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David A. Rahn
,
René D. Garreaud
, and
José A. Rutllant

surface meteorological observations (along the coast, on buoys, and on an island), radiosondes, radar-derived sea surface currents, and ocean currents and temperature from a pair of coastal moorings. The in situ observations have been complemented with airborne meteorological measurements taken during subsequent research flights (see Garreaud et al. 2011 ). A distinguishing feature of the CUpEx site ( Fig. 2 ) is the existence of a very dry, 1 gently sloped, elevated marine terrace (MT) that extends

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Werner Alpers
,
Jen-Ping Chen
,
I-I. Lin
, and
Chun-Chi Lien

clear indication that the front visible on the ERS-1 SAR image is of atmospheric origin. Note that the cloud band closely follows the coastline, which is a clear indication that it has its origin in an interaction of the atmosphere with the island. On both days the sky was almost cloud free such that the low-land coastal areas could be heated up by solar radiation. Evidence of this is also provided by the infrared image depicted in Fig. 11 . If we assume that the meteorological conditions were

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Ye Liu
,
Brian Gaudet
,
Raghavendra Krishnamurthy
,
Sheng-Lun Tai
,
Larry K. Berg
,
Nicola Bodini
,
Alex Rybchuk
, and
Andrew Kumler

Energy Laboratory released a new 20-yr (2000–19) wind resource dataset (referred to as CA20) that replaces the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit ( Draxl et al. 2015 ) for use in the California outer continental shelf ( Optis et al. 2020 ). The CA20 simulation configuration improved upon the WIND Toolkit setup by spanning a longer period and using more modern version of model physics and forcing data, and it was validated against measurements available at the time, namely, coastal

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Dilchand Nauth
,
Christopher P. Loughner
, and
Maria Tzortziou

1. Introduction Coastal urban regions around the world are characterized by highly dynamic atmospheric composition influenced by meteorological processes unique to land–ocean interfaces, including sea/land-breeze circulations ( Loughner et al. 2014 ; Geddes et al. 2021 ). Differences in heat capacities between large bodies of water and the surrounding landmass allow for differences in atmospheric temperature and pressure to occur, creating sea, bay, or lake breezes during the daytime

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