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Jianqiong Zhan, Wenyuan Chang, Wei Li, Yanming Wang, Liqi Chen, and Jinpei Yan

in diameter) concentrations exceeded 200 μg m −3 in the NCP and YRD regions ( Yu et al. 2014 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ), extremely high PM levels were also observed in Fujian Province, with PM 2.5 concentrations up to 213 μ g m −3 in Xiamen ( Yan et al. 2015 ). Meteorological patterns play a vital role in the transport and mixing of particulate matter ( Fast et al. 2012 , 2014 ). Previous studies have observed aerosol chemical composition in southeastern coastal China and then demonstrated the

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Chibuike Onwukwe and Peter L. Jackson

valley and the coastal channel. This study conducts high-resolution simulations of meteorological variables with the WRF Model, version 4.0, and the fifth major global reanalysis product of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA5), with a focus on evaluating performance of different PBL formulations. Its objectives are to quantify modeling uncertainties and to qualify mixing and dispersion capabilities of alternative physical schemes. The remainder of this paper is organized as

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Dörte Wagner, Birger Tinz, and Hans von Storch

1. Introduction Historical climate data gain in importance in relation to climatological investigations. Especially long-term time series of historical observation data are able to show the changes of meteorological values. Long-term time series of meteorological data often suffer from inhomogeneity for wind research (e.g., Lindenberg et al. 2012 ). Furthermore, historical data are needed as input for global and regional reanalysis datasets ( Dee et al. 2011 ; Cram et al. 2015 ) and also for

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Werner Alpers, Jen-Ping Chen, Chia-Jung Pi, and I-I. Lin

was closely related to the coastal offshore flow developing at night. Such frontal lines are sometimes also observed on ERS1 / 2 SAR and Envisat ASAR images when the meteorological conditions are favorable for the development of strong katabatic winds. Katabatic winds are encountered only late in the evening, at night, and early in the morning, and only when radiation weather prevails (i.e., when the sky is cloud free or almost cloud free such that radiation cooling can take place over the

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David A. Rahn, René D. Garreaud, and José A. Rutllant

surface meteorological observations (along the coast, on buoys, and on an island), radiosondes, radar-derived sea surface currents, and ocean currents and temperature from a pair of coastal moorings. The in situ observations have been complemented with airborne meteorological measurements taken during subsequent research flights (see Garreaud et al. 2011 ). A distinguishing feature of the CUpEx site ( Fig. 2 ) is the existence of a very dry, 1 gently sloped, elevated marine terrace (MT) that extends

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Werner Alpers, Jen-Ping Chen, I-I. Lin, and Chun-Chi Lien

clear indication that the front visible on the ERS-1 SAR image is of atmospheric origin. Note that the cloud band closely follows the coastline, which is a clear indication that it has its origin in an interaction of the atmosphere with the island. On both days the sky was almost cloud free such that the low-land coastal areas could be heated up by solar radiation. Evidence of this is also provided by the infrared image depicted in Fig. 11 . If we assume that the meteorological conditions were

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Anton Sokolov, Egor Dmitriev, Cyril Gengembre, and Hervé Delbarre

1. Introduction Information about local meteorological phenomena is widely used in making managerial decisions related to regional development. One of the most challenging domains for atmospheric study are coastal zones, areas with complex orography and industrial areas located near large settlements. Mesoscale circulation in the boundary layer of the atmosphere has a significant effect on the transport and dispersion of pollutants. In particular, the development of breeze circulation

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Daosheng Wang, Haidong Pan, Lin Mu, Xianqing Lv, Bing Yan, and Hua Yang

1. Introduction Elevated coastal sea levels (SLs; see appendix ) are dangerous for nearby cities, while depressed SLs can render navigation of coastal bays and harbors difficult and hazardous ( Tilburg and Garvine 2004 ). The SL variations at the coast result from multiscale processes, with the superposition of global mean SL, regional SL, and local SL changes, as shown in Melet et al. (2016 , 2018) . SL changes due to meteorological forcing, including sea surface atmospheric pressure (AP

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Kelly A. Lombardo and Brian A. Colle

1. Introduction Observational evidence suggests that organized convective systems can be modified by water bodies, such as lakes (e.g., Bosart and Sanders 1981 ; Bosart and Galarneau 2005 ) as well as coastal oceans (e.g., Mapes et al. 2003 ; Lericos et al. 2007 ; Murray and Colle 2011 ). For example, the mesoscale convective complex responsible for the 1977 Johnstown, Pennsylvania, floods temporarily weakened while traversing the relatively cool waters of the Great Lakes, and subsequently

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Guoqi Han and Yu Shi

1. Introduction Accurate predictions of water levels are important for a large scope of coastal and open ocean activities, such as commercial transportation, coastal and offshore constructions, monitoring and prediction of changes in complex marine ecosystems, development and implementation of oceanic energy exploration, and oceanographic research. The instantaneous water-level measurements are not stationary either spatially or temporally. They fluctuate under a joint influence of tides

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