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Yu Du, Guixing Chen, Bin Han, Lanqiang Bai, and Minghua Li

1. Introduction Heavy rainfall is frequently observed near coastal terrain as a result of processes including continuous convection initiation (CI) and upscale convective growth (UCG) ( Lin et al. 2001 ; Ducrocq et al. 2008 ; Lee et al. 2014 ; Bai et al. 2020a , b ). Three important physical setting components influencing CI and UCG at the coast have been identified: ocean, coastline, and coastal mountains. The ocean typically acts as a main source of moisture and heat by providing sensible

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Martin Bergemann, Christian Jakob, and Todd P. Lane

–sea-breeze circulations ( Mori et al. 2004 ). Land–sea-breeze systems are mainly forced by differential heating between land and the adjacent ocean but also affected by a variety of different factors, such as coastline curvature, latitude, topography, atmospheric stability, land use, and synoptic wind patterns (e.g., McPherson 1970 ; Haurwitz 1947 ; Pielke 2002 ; Estoque 1962 ; Mak and Walsh 1976 ; Mahrer and Pielke 1977 ). Crosman and Horel (2010) provide a comprehensive review of the studies that have been

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John C. Kindle and James J. O'Brien

., 3, 33-46.On lJpwelling Along a Zonally-Orientated Coastline~ JOHN C. KINDLE AND JAMES J. O'BRIENDepts. of Meteorology and Oceanography and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee 3230626 July 1973 and 17 September 1973ABSTRACT A common observation in major coastal upwelling regions is a reversal of the mean longshore currentwith depth during active upwelling. A numerical model and a simple analytical model applied to a twolayer ocean on a

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Tsann-Wang Yu and Norman Y. Wagner

760 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~u~m9Diurnal Variation of Onshore Wind Speed Near a Coastline~ TSANN-WANG -U AND NORMAN K. WAGNERAtmosph~ri~ Science Group, The University of Texas at Austin (Manuscript received 10 April 1970)ABSTRACT Surface wind data taken from 19 km offshore to 14 km inland during several days of onshore wind occurrence were reduced and analyzed. The mean kinetic energy per

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Hsien Wang Ou and Wilhelmus P. M. De Ruijter

280 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Separation of an Inertial Boundary Current from a Curved Coastline* HSIEN WANG OULamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 WILHELMUS P. M. DE RULITERRijkswaterstaat/Deltaservice, Fan Alkemadelaan 400, 2597 A T Den Haag, The Netherlands (Manuscri~ received 11 March 1985, in final form 29 August 1985) A two-layer model

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Brian A. Colle and Sandra E. Yuter

similar precipitation enhancement as compared to the observations, with the latter only exceeding 13 mm over the coastal land areas of LI and CT. The precipitation enhancement follows the CT coastline, suggesting that there was both differential friction and hill effects during the event. Both MM5 resolutions tended to overpredict precipitation to the west around NYC. Since the precipitation structures are similar between the 4- and 1.33-km MM5 runs, the 4-km grid was used for the sensitivity studies

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R. M. Samelson

I SEPTEMBER 1992 S A M E L S O N 15 71Supercritical Marine-Layer Flow along a Smoothly Varying Coastline* R. M. $AMELSONWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts(Manuscript received 14 January 1991, in final form 7 October 1991)ABSTRACT A model for hydraulically supercritical atmospheric marine-layer flow along a smoothly varying coastline isformulated and solved

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J. R. Garratt, P. A. C. Howells, and E. Kowalczyk

120g MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME II7The Behavior of Dry Cold Fronts Traveling Along a Coastline J. R. GARRATT*Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Colorado 80523 P. A. C. HOWELLS AND E. KOWALCZYKC$1RO Division of .4tmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia(Manuscript received 17 August 1988, in final form 15 December 1988

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R. David Baker, Barry H. Lynn, Aaron Boone, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Joanne Simpson

-breeze-initiated precipitation over the Florida peninsula: soil moisture availability, coastline curvature, and early morning land-breeze circulations. Soil moisture may affect convective development by enhancing atmospheric moisture or by modulating the surface temperature to produce mesoscale circulations. Through strong evapotranspiration, wet soil may act as a moisture source for the overlying atmospheric boundary layer, thus increasing the moist static energy of the atmosphere and promoting convective development (e

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R. D. Diab and M. Garstang

east and west coasts of South Africa. The modelresults suggest that no one solution for optimizing a wind generator location would satisfy both coastlinesowing to their differing characteristics. On the east coast, the most favorable location is approximately 55kin inland on the high-lying terrain, whereas on the west coast, the best location is generally about 10 kmoffshore. The application of the two-dimensional form of a primitive equation model in areas where thetopography and the coastline are

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