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Nicholas D. Metz, Heather M. Archambault, Alan F. Srock, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., and Lance F. Bosart

1. Introduction Continuous regions of north–south-oriented high terrain can modulate the movement of synoptic-scale cold air masses by contributing to terrain-channeled surges of this cold air into subtropical and tropical latitudes (e.g., Myers 1964 ; DiMego et al. 1976 ; Parmenter 1976 ; Garreaud 1999 , 2000 , 2001 ; Lupo et al. 2001 ). Preferred pathways for these cold surges have been identified to the lee of many mountain ranges worldwide ( Fig. 1 ) including the Rockies (e

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Caitlin C. Crossett and Nicholas D. Metz

1. Introduction Cold air is frequently advected along the lee side of high terrain and channeled equatorward, creating a cold surge. Cold surges are shallow regions of cold, stable air that extend approximately 500–1000 km, or one Rossby radius of deformation away from high terrain ( Pierrehumbert and Wyman 1985 ). Cold surges typically have a coherent signature from two days up to an entire week and are often associated with strong low-level equatorward flow exceeding 20 m s −1 , decreases in

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Tae-Won Park, Chang-Hoi Ho, and Song Yang

described above, some studies have suggested that some cold surges are distinctive from the wave train type. For example, Takaya and Nakamura (2005b) documented two different origins of the intraseasonal amplification of the Siberian high: a wave train from the Atlantic and a blocking from the Pacific. In fact, the two origins lead to different types of cold air outbreaks over East Asia. Park et al. (2008) reported that the expansions of the Siberian high and the subsequent cold surges are caused by

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Muhammad Rais Abdillah, Yuki Kanno, Toshiki Iwasaki, and Jun Matsumoto

1. Introduction East Asian winter is intermittently intruded by the sudden release of cold airmasses (CAM) from the high latitudes, which affects weather variability across the Far East and the North Pacific. This so-called cold air outbreak or cold surge event typically leads to rapid temperature drops, high pressure, and strong winds for one to several days ( Chang et al. 1979 ; Ding and Krishnamurti 1987 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Shoji et al. 2014 ). Severe cold surges are well known for

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Isaque Saes Lanfredi and Ricardo de Camargo

1. Introduction Cold-air incursions across South America can present particular characteristics due to the presence of the Andes Mountains, which contribute to the advancement of cold fronts to the southwest of the Amazon basin. Besides organizing the convection in northern Brazil ( Garreaud and Wallace 1998 ), the continental fronts are also known to cause impacts that are especially felt by agriculture because of freeze events, with significant losses in coffee production and consequent

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Xiaoye Yang, Gang Zeng, Guwei Zhang, and Zhongxian Li

. J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D02112 , . Wang , Z. , and Y. Ding , 2006 : Climate change of the cold wave frequency of China in the last 53 years and the possible reasons (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. , 30 , 1068 – 1076 . Woo , S.-H. , B. Kim , J.-H. Jeong , S. Kim , and G. Lim , 2012 : Decadal changes in surface air temperature variability and cold surge characteristics over northeast Asia and their relation with the Arctic

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Bo Pang, Riyu Lu, and Rongcai Ren

1. Introduction A cold surge over the South China Sea (SCS) features an abrupt outbreak of northerly or northeasterly winds and is a typical but severe weather phenomenon during the boreal winter ( Ramage 1971 ; Chang et al. 1983 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ; Chang et al. 2006 , 2011 ). As a form of southward propagation of northerlies from the midlatitudes, cold surges can result in a drop of air temperature (e.g., Boyle and Chen 1987 ; Lu and Chang 2009 ), an intensification of tropical

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Xuejuan Ren, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Haibo Hu

studies have shown that robust subseasonal variations of E occur around the Kuroshio and its extension [Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE)] region during winter ( Qiu 2002 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ; Grodsky et al. 2009 ). This study focuses on these variations and their connections with the atmospheric circulation and water vapor transport over the North Pacific basin on a subseasonal time scale. Cold air surge (CAS) activities over the Asian coastal water can cause subseasonal E anomalies in the KOE

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Jianqiong Zhan, Wenyuan Chang, Wei Li, Yanming Wang, Liqi Chen, and Jinpei Yan

humidity ( Qu et al. 2015 ; S.-H. Wang et al. 2016 ). As cold surges propagate to the south, massive amounts of northern particulates are brought to the southeastern continental edge within a shallow layer approximately 1 km above the surface ( Hsu et al. 2010 ; Yan et al. 2015 ; S.-H. Wang et al. 2016 ) and have consequently degraded air quality in the southeastern coastal region. This is different from the haze events in the NCP, where high PM 2.5 concentrations have been suggested to be mainly

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Joseph Galewsky

improve our interpretations of the suite of measurements made at this site, at other subtropical sites worldwide, and from remote sensing platforms. b. South American cold-air surges Synoptic-scale surges of cold, midlatitude air along major mountain ranges are common worldwide and have been recognized along the Andes ( Marengo et al. 1997 ; Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ), Rocky Mountains ( Colle and Mass 1995 ), the Himalaya ( Wu and Chan 1995 , 1997 ), and in Central America ( Schultz and Bracken 1998

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