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Cody Kirkpatrick, Eugene W. McCaul Jr., and Charles Cohen

1. Introduction The pioneering numerical modeling studies of Weisman and Klemp (1982 , hereafter WK82) have helped guide convective storm research for nearly three decades. Their work studied storm behavior in an expansive array of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and bulk shear values ( Fig. 1 ), showing dramatic increases in storm updraft velocity as CAPE increased from roughly 1000 to 2000 J kg −1 , with persistent updrafts at all values of CAPE above 2000 J kg −1 (given

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Maria Andrea Lima and James W. Wilson

1. Introduction The objective of this study is to investigate the causes of convective storm initiation and the subsequent evolution during the wet season in the southwest Amazon region. The focus is on a day when large-scale convective storm forcing mechanisms were at a minimum. While the focus of this study is on just 1 day, it is likely representative of many days over the Amazon and other similar tropical areas. Since synoptic-scale fronts are relatively rare in such tropical regions local

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Katherine L. Horgan, David M. Schultz, John E. Hales Jr., Stephen F. Corfidi, and Robert H. Johns

1. Introduction Deep moist convection can be either surface based or elevated. Surface-based convection occurs when near-surface air is the most unstable air parcel in the column. Elevated convection occurs above a near-surface stable layer, such that the most-unstable parcel is above the surface. Recent research has shown that elevated convective storms may be relatively common. For example, Wilson and Roberts (2006) found that half of the convective storms during the International H 2 O

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J. Cody Kirkpatrick, Eugene W. McCaul Jr., and Charles Cohen

1. Introduction The motion of a convective storm is one of its most readily observed characteristics. Other common descriptors such as updraft velocity or vertical vorticity require more complex observations and calculations (e.g., retrieval techniques such as in Shapiro et al. 2003 ). Driven partly by features of the ambient atmospheric profile, storm motion is intimately related to the intensity of the updraft and the rotation (if present) within a storm. Cotton and Anthes (1989 , p. 497

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Joseph M. Schoen and Walker S. Ashley

1. Introduction Even though there have been many advances in the understanding and technology required to predict and mitigate the effects of convective storms, there are still many lives lost each year due to these events. Of the four most common thunderstorm hazards (wind, hail, flooding, and lightning), convective winds (tornadic and nontornadic) remain the most dangerous threat to life and property. Convective winds are responsible for an average of 84 fatalities per year in the United

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Jari-Petteri Tuovinen, Jenni Rauhala, and David M. Schultz

severe-hail environment and convective mode of storms generally do not exist. The only related studies are by Roine (2001) , who studied stability indices in thunderstorm environments in southern Finland during May–August for two years (1998 and 2000) and by Punkka and Bister (2015) , who studied the synoptic and thermodynamic environment of MCSs in Finland covering eight warm seasons (April–September for 2000–07). In contrast to Finland, many more studies have been performed on severe- or

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Kao-Shen Chung, Isztar Zawadzki, M. K. Yau, and Luc Fillion

1. Introduction The prediction of the initiation and development of convective storms represents a great challenge in the atmospheric sciences. The Lagrangian advection of radar echoes (called radar nowcasting) does not account for initiation, development, and dissipation. Forecasts using numerical weather prediction models are problematic because conventional synoptic-scale observations contain little information on the mesoscale. The initial conditions at the convective scale are therefore

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Harrison Li and Brian A. Colle

1. Introduction a. Background Multidecadal changes in convective storms and the associated physical mechanisms are poorly understood relative to long-term trends in other extreme meteorological phenomena, such as hurricanes and heat waves ( Kunkel et al. 2013 ). Additionally, although thunderstorms occur more frequently in the midwestern and southern United States than in the northeastern United States (NEUS), convection has a substantial impact on life and property in the NEUS due to the

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Abdullah Kahraman, Mikdat Kadioglu, and Paul M. Markowski

1. Introduction Skillful forecasting of convective storms and their attendant hazards, such as tornadoes or large hail, requires knowledge of the characteristics of the environments in which the phenomena tend to occur. Existing studies of environmental conditions supportive of severe convective storms cover mainly the United States and parts of Europe. Rasmussen and Blanchard (1998) analyzed National Weather Service soundings from 1992 and focused on discriminating between environments

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Edouard Goudenhoofdt and Laurent Delobbe

1. Introduction The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive statistical analysis of convective storms in and around Belgium. The area of interest is characterized by a temperate climate, a nearby coastline, and intermediate level of orography (maximum 694 m). Convective storms are common meteorological phenomena that involve complex processes at different temporal and spatial scales. Severe events cause flash floods, strong winds, hail falls, and tornadoes, which can significantly

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