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Casey D. Burleyson, Charles N. Long, and Jennifer M. Comstock

aggregate LW cloud radiative effect (LW CRE; LWdn − CLWdn) at all three sites. All values are in watts per meter squared and are averaged across the diurnal cycle. The radiative characteristics of each cloud type at each site are given in Table 4 . For this analysis we average values across all ENSO phases and monsoon seasons. Comparing the radiative effects in this way allows us to consider the differences and similarities for a given cloud type across the three TWP sites. The mean SW transmissivity

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Carl A. Mears and Frank J. Wentz

times drift, the diurnal evolution in the radiance caused by changes in atmospheric and surface temperature are aliased into the long-term record. It is therefore important to characterize and remove the effects of this “diurnal drift” to construct an accurate long-term record. In practice, we adjust each measurement so that it corresponds to local midnight. Since the diurnal cycle depends on the time of year, these adjustments are also applied to the nondrifting satellites so that the difference

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

explicitly been discussed in the literature, Figs. 4 and 10 of Neena et al. (2017) and Fig. 3 of Sobel et al. (2010) imply such interactions are possible and serve as motivation for this work to explicitly understand the impact topography has on the diurnal cycle of precipitation during BSISO suppressed versus active conditions. Along with the effects of topography over the MC on MJO evolution, previous work has suggested that the diurnal cycle (DC) of precipitation (DCP) over the MC has important

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Shouting Gao, Yushu Zhou, and Xiaofan Li

( Li 2004 ), and the direct interaction between radiation and convection ( Liu and Moncrieff 1998 ). The afternoon rainfall peak could be due to the forcing associated with the maximum sea surface temperature ( Sui et al. 1998 ). Sui et al. (1997b) compared one-dimensional ocean mixed-layer simulations with hourly surface forcing and daily mean forcing during Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) to examine the effects of oceanic diurnal

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Brandon Wesley John Kerns, Yi-Leng Chen, and Mei-Yu Chang

environment flow, the interactions between the environment flow and local winds, and individual weather systems embedded in the flow. The goals of this study are to use the ARMTS database to distinguish between the diurnal wind, rainfall, and cloud patterns characteristic of the mei-yu, summer, and autumn and to study the island effects on rainfall diurnal cycle under different rainfall regimes. Additionally, the diurnal climatology of cold clouds measured by geostationary infrared (IR) satellite data is

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Lawrence S. Jackson and Piers M. Forster

often not diurnal ( Przybylak 2000 ). Linacre (1982) argued that strong winds reduce DTR. Heat is transported away from the surface during the day, reducing maximum temperatures, and the nocturnal boundary layer air is mixed with warmer air entrained from above, limiting the extent of any nocturnal temperature inversion. Aerosols, which scatter or absorb solar radiation and exert cloud related indirect effects, could also influence DTR ( Hansen et al. 1995 ). Solar dimming due to aerosols may, in

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Peter T. May, Charles N. Long, and Alain Protat

, radiation budgets, and boundary layer structure. These effects, combined with the distribution of the land and ocean, produce markedly different rainfall distributions and diurnal variability with the break dominated by locally forced circulations. It is the purpose of the next sections to better characterize these diurnal cycles further with available observations in the Darwin area. 4. Diurnal cycle of convective and cloud ice The substantial differences in the diurnal cycle of convection and

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R. E. Carbone and J. D. Tuttle

features and forcings, with emphasis on the wavelike eastward progression of rainfall, breeze effects, and other signals associated with a semidiurnal harmonic. In reference to the wavelike eastward progression of rainfall, this is best visualized by means of an animation of the 12-season (JJA) average diurnal cycle (the P12 diurnal animation is available online at ). One measure of diurnal variation is standard deviation (h) of the diurnal maximum ( Figs. 3

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Juerg Schmidli and Richard Rotunno

1. Introduction Diurnal slope and valley winds are an essential component of the fair-weather mountain atmosphere. They strongly influence the weather and climate in mountain valleys and, together with turbulent processes, control the land surface–atmosphere exchanges in mountainous regions. Also, the quantification of the associated fluxes of energy, momentum, moisture, and pollutants is important for many applications such as air-quality studies, numerical weather prediction, and climate

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Yunwei Yan, Lei Zhang, Xiangzhou Song, Guihua Wang, and Changlin Chen

. 2003 , 2011 ; Chou et al. 2004 ; Bourras 2006 ; Iwasaki et al. 2010 ; Clayson and Bogdanoff 2013 ; Weihs and Bourassa 2014 ; Bentamy et al. 2017 ; Brodeau et al. 2017 ; Cronin et al. 2019 ). The present study focuses on the last source of uncertainty: the effects of diurnal variations in LHF-related variables on the climatological mean LHF. The climatological diurnal warming of SSTskin is on the order of 1/10 K in the tropical oceans (e.g., Clayson and Weitlich 2007 ; Kawai and Wada 2007

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