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N. G. Heavens

circulation and/or frontal boundary. Instead, they consist of multiple local/regional storms that form along the advancing dust haze itself or as the result of global teleconnections associated with the high loading of dust ( Strausberg et al. 2005 ; Cantor 2007 ). Regional dust storms can form from merging local storms but are often associated with discrete weather systems, particularly fronts ( Cantor et al. 2001 ; Cantor 2007 ; Wang and Richardson 2015 ). Global storms loft dust up to 75 km above

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W. James Steenburgh, Jeffrey D. Massey, and Thomas H. Painter

and interpretation of long-term trends and variability. Consistent with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) guidelines ( WMO 2009 ), the present-weather record in DS-3505 includes 11 dust categories ( Table 1 ). During the study period, there were 916 reports of blowing dust (category 7), 178 of dust in suspension (category 6), 7 of dust storm (categories 9, 30–32, and 98), and 1 of dust or sand whirl (category 8) at KSLC. There were no reports of severe dust storm (categories 33–35). Among

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Amato T. Evan and Sujoy Mukhopadhyay

that time there has been a steady increase in the number of publications related to dust outbreaks ( Stout et al. 2009 ), and since the dawn of the satellite era the rate of publications on Saharan dust has grown exponentially ( Kaufman et al. 2005b ). One interesting subset of study into aeolian dust focuses on the relationship between climate variability and African dust outbreaks. Much focus has been placed on demonstrating that Atlantic dust storm frequency and intensity changes are forced by

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Nicholas G. Heavens, David M. Kass, James H. Shirley, Sylvain Piqueux, and Bruce A. Cantor

convection that mixes dust and water vapor into the middle atmosphere, which is called dusty deep convection (DDC) in line with the deeply penetrating convection simulated by Spiga et al. (2013) . DDC was first suspected by Gierasch and Goody (1973) , who proposed Martian dust storms might resemble hurricanes and thus have deeply mixed dust concentrated near their centers with vertical velocities on the order of 0.1 m s −1 . Furthermore, plume-like, cumuliform, and/or cellular organization of dust

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E. E. Houssos, T. Chronis, A. Fotiadi, and F. Hossain

patterns of dust storms are also documented by Rezazadeh et al. (2013) using visibility records for the period 1998–2003. Utilizing the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)–derived aerosol index (AI), for a 14.5-yr period (1978–93), the maximum of dust storm activity is identified over eastern and central Saudi Arabia (Ad Dahna Desert) as well as the Saudi–Oman border (Rub al Khali or Empty Quarter Desert) during the summer months ( Washington et al. 2003 ). Prospero et al. (2002) , also using

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Qingyu Guan, Xiazhong Sun, Jing Yang, Baotian Pan, Shilei Zhao, and Lei Wang

1. Introduction Dust storms are a disastrous weather type. They arise in desert areas and release substantial amounts of aerosolized dust into the atmosphere ( Engelstaedter et al. 2006 ; Boucher et al. 2013 ). This airborne dust can reduce visibility and air quality and cause respiratory and circulatory system diseases ( Degobbi et al. 2011 ). Dust particles can be transported on regional or global scales ( Shao and Dong 2006 ), directly or indirectly transforming atmospheric systems. This

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Priyanka Banerjee, S. K. Satheesh, K. Krishna Moorthy, Ravi S. Nanjundiah, and Vijayakumar S. Nair

rainfall by changing the atmospheric heating profile and hence the moisture convergence ( Lau et al. 2006 ; Vinoj et al. 2014 ; Jin et al. 2014 ; Solmon et al. 2015 ; Kim et al. 2016 ). Understanding these mechanisms and the way they influence the Indian summer monsoon is critical for South Asia since the region depends, directly or indirectly, on the monsoon rainfall. Most of the studies on dust transport over the northern IO have focused on the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; e.g., Dey et al. 2004

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Po-Lun Ma, Kai Zhang, Jainn Jong Shi, Toshihisa Matsui, and Albert Arking

days, SST is a function of wind speed. While strong surface winds are expected in the presence of an AEW or TC, storm-forced SST cooling ( Price 1981 ; Sanford et al. 1987 ) can weaken the parent ( Black and Holland 1995 ) and the future storms ( Brand 1971 ). In our simulations, we use ECMWF operational analysis, which has assimilated observational data and contains both SST and winds, as our initial and boundary conditions. The model calculates the meteorological fields within the domain

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Peter Rogowski, Mark Otero, Joel Hazard, Thomas Muschamp, Scott Katz, and Eric Terrill

engulfed stations XM1 and XM2, corresponding to visibility observations near zero, while good visibility conditions were observed to the north. OA maps derived from the XMET array captured some of the patchiness in the eastern side of the dust plume delineating potential go–no go regions for ground or aviation operations. The analysis suggests that additional XMETs deployed further upstream, closer to the source dust regions, could improve forecasts of dust storms at the southern XMET sites. 2) Typhoon

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Grant L. Harley, James King, and Justin T. Maxwell

the AERONET site in Key Biscayne. Specifically, connectivity between the southern Florida region and North Africa dust emissions were discovered from HYSPLIT analysis for dust storm activity commencing on 18 and 26 June and arriving in the region on 26 June and 5 July, respectively ( Figures 3a,b ). Furthermore, a large dust outbreak arrived at the AERONET site on 20 July from a known large source region in the Saharan heat low ( Ashpole and Washington 2013 ) on 10 July ( Figure 3c ). Figure 3

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