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Paul C. Fiedler, Roy Mendelssohn, Daniel M. Palacios, and Steven J. Bograd

, as a baseline for seasonal and interannual cyclic variations, means that these changes may have effects disproportionate to their relative amplitude. Rice (2001) suggested that the effect of environmental variations on ecosystem dynamics depends on their temporal scale relative to the generation time of important species such as top predators. Our focus in this paper is to describe these longer-term variations and to discuss implications for ecosystem productivity and processes. 2. Data and

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Tristan Ballard, Richard Seager, Jason E. Smerdon, Benjamin I. Cook, Andrea J. Ray, Balaji Rajagopalan, Yochanan Kushnir, Jennifer Nakamura, and Naomi Henderson

., 13 pp . Gleason , R. A. , N. H. Euliss , B. A. Tangen , and M. K. Laubhan , 2011 : USDA conservation program and practice effects on wetland ecosystem services in the Prairie Pothole Region . Ecol. Appl. , 21 , S65 – S81 , doi: 10.1890/09-0216.1 . Harris , I. , P. D. Jones , T. J. Osborn , and D. H. Lister , 2014 : Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations—The CRU TS3.10 . Int. J. Climatol. , 34 , 623 – 642 , doi: 10.1002/joc.3711 . Johnson , R

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

from seconds to years, by measuring the covariance between the fluctuations in vertical wind velocity and CO 2 mixing ratio ( Baldocchi 2003 ). Quantifying the temporal variation in ecosystem CO 2 exchange rates at one site helps to clarify the effects of environmental variation on ecosystem physiological processes. Data gathered during fluctuations in environmental conditions are useful to develop physiological response curves for whole-ecosystem response to changes in temperature, light, and so

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Ayman Suleiman, Jawad Al-Bakri, Mohammad Duqqah, and Rich Crago

and is home to a wide range of highly adapted organisms. Sudanian Penetration : provides unique ecosystems, with altitudes varying from the lowest elevation on earth at 400 m below the sea level (at the Dead Sea in the Rift Valley) up to 1200 m in the south. This region is characterized by very hot summers and warm winters, with a mean annual rainfall of 50 mm or less. Vegetation is dominated by Acacia sp. in the low-altitude region and scattered shrubs in the high-altitude region. Six

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Sönke Zaehle, Chris D. Jones, Benjamin Houlton, Jean-Francois Lamarque, and Eddy Robertson

ecosystem models accounting for all relevant C–N interactions. In the following, we discuss the implications of these assumptions. a. Methodological limitations Lacking a framework to account for potential changes in tissue C:N ratios, we did not include such effects. Foliar C:N ratios have been reported to increase with elevated CO 2 ( Ainsworth and Long 2005 ), while they decrease with N additions ( Hyvönen et al. 2007 ). However, the C:N of the entire vegetation were largely unaffected in free

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S. C. Chapman, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Stainforth, and N. W. Watkins

, summers and winters is an increasing research focus ( Felton and Smith 2017 ). A series of recent studies have examined the impacts of these climatic extremes, in the sense of atypical extended warmer and colder periods, on individual plant and animal species, communities, and ecosystems and on agricultural systems. The temporal structure of temperature variability is important in determining the magnitude of any ecological effects. Experimental analyses showed that changes in temporal clustering of

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Peiyun Zhu, Susan J. Cheng, Zachary Butterfield, Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, and Allison L. Steiner

the global diffuse fertilization effects from clouds. Spatial resolution may also influence other factors that affect the relationship between COT and ecosystem productivity at the spatial and temporal scales implemented in this study. For example, a 1° × 1° area will have wide ranges of water and nutrient availability in soils, which are important environmental drivers of productivity that we did not explore in the study. Clouds also exhibit a strong variability across these spatial scales, with

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Aiwen Lin, Hongji Zhu, Lunche Wang, Wei Gong, and Ling Zou

). Especially in the arid region of northwestern China, the significant changes in climate may lead to the changes in vegetation growth ( Zhao et al. 2011 ). In southern China, the subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change ( Zhou et al. 2013 ). To evaluate the effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, the gross primary production (GPP) and the net primary production (NPP) are widely used in literature ( Fang et al. 2013 ). For example, one

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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

the biogeochemically coupled simulation the biogeochemistry responds to the increasing atmospheric CO 2 while the radiative forcing remains at preindustrial values. The simulations do not include the confounding effects of changes in land use, non-CO 2 greenhouse gases, aerosols, etc., and so provide a controlled experiment with which to compare carbon–climate interactions across models. Results from eight of the comprehensive Earth system models participating in the CMIP5 intercomparison

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Christopher Potter

1. Introduction The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) was established by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 and covers 19 million acres (77 000 km 2 ) in northeast Alaska. Proponents of development in the ANWR view its 1.6 million acre (6475 km 2 ) coastal plain as a promising onshore oil reserve ( Comay et al. 2018 ). Nonetheless, wildlife habitats in the ANWR are vulnerable to long-lasting effects from any disturbance, in part because short growing seasons in the

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