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Roland J. Viger, Lauren E. Hay, Steven L. Markstrom, John W. Jones, and Gary R. Buell

hydrological modeling and comparing these new results with the current FORE-SCE output. The study results also might be improved by more appropriate transformation of FORE-SCE output into the parameter used in PRMS, which is referred to as “effective imperviousness.” To do this, the hydrological connectedness of impervious surfaces forecast by FORE-SCE to the drainage network could be analyzed at each future time increment and used to adjust the hru_percent_imperv parameter values. Viger et al. ( Viger et

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Barry H. Lynn, Toby N. Carlson, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Richard Goldberg, Leonard Druyan, Jennifer Cox, Stuart Gaffin, Lily Parshall, and Kevin Civerolo

effect of mitigation on surface radiometric and 2-m temperatures, as well as a measure of the effective temperature experienced by a person at street level standing under a tree, on an unsheltered grassy surface, or on an unsheltered impervious surface at noontime. 2. Methods Seguin and Gignoux (1974) conducted a field experiment in France for the purpose of evaluating the effects of wind stress on crops planted between hedges. The hedgerows were removed to increase the wind stress on the crops

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Xuejian Cao, Guangheng Ni, Youcun Qi, and Bo Liu

impervious area ( Yao et al. 2016a , b ). To quantitatively depict the routing features, indicators related to the combination of routing direction and routing percent are proposed, not only reflecting the degree of imperviousness but the level of impervious–pervious interaction. For example, Sahoo and Sreeja (2017) and Hwang et al. (2017) utilized the indicator effective impervious area (EIA) and directly connected impervious area (DCIA), respectively, to describe the impervious area directly

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

% direct runoff. This fraction was varied between 10% and 100% to simulate the corresponding floods into the reservoir. These areas are assumed to be effective impervious areas (EIA) that result in direct runoff without any infiltration ( Yang et al. 2011 ). Figure 2. Gridded daily precipitation representation over ARW. 3.1.2. Hydrological model The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model ( Liang et al. 1994 ; Liang et al. 1996 ) was used to simulate the runoff fluxes distributed over the watershed

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Rebecca L. Powell and Dar A. Roberts

. 2005 ). Remote sensing imagery offers a fast, cost-effective, and consistent source of information about the evolution of urban land cover from intraurban to global scales. However, deriving meaningful and accurate measures to quantitatively characterize urban land cover remains a challenge in remote sensing applications because an urban area represents a complex landscape of built structures and human-modified land cover ( Forster 1985 ; Zipperer et al. 2000 ). Globally, urban land cover varies

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Julia E. Morrison, Paula Sturdevant-Rees, Daniel F. Turner-Gillespie, and Paul D. Bates

, augments the regional picture of impervious cover and associated infiltration potential. The “urban soils” classification ( Table 2 ) includes compacted soils that behave hydraulically as impervious in short-duration heavy rain. The effective impervious cover of a catchment is the fraction of impervious cover shown in the fourth column of Table 2 plus the fraction of urban soils (fifth column). The area above the Medical Center gauging station has the largest effective impervious cover of 52%. For

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Rebecca D. Marjerison, M. Todd Walter, Patrick J. Sullivan, and Stephen J. Colucci

flash flood generation ( Fig. 4 ). To represent the physical processes underlying flash floods, we chose landscape variables of slope, percent impervious area, and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity ( k sat ). Basins with high average topographic slope are at particular risk for flash floods because high slopes increase the kinetic energy of surface runoff (e.g., Schmittner and Giresse 1996 ; Smith 2003 ). Average slope (percent change with elevation) was derived from the USGS National

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Saumya Sarkar, Jonathan B. Butcher, Thomas E. Johnson, and Christopher M. Clark

1. Introduction Increased impervious surfaces and enhanced connectivity of drainage networks in urban areas lead to higher stormwater runoff volume and peaks and enhanced pollutant loads (e.g., Walsh et al. 2005 ). A variety of best management practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce the adverse impacts of urban stormwater. Traditional “gray” stormwater management infrastructure uses single-purpose, hard structures, including detention basins and storm sewers, to convey runoff. These

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Young-Hee Ryu and Jong-Jin Baik

; Rizwan et al. 2008 ; Hidalgo et al. 2008 ). It is known that the UHI is caused by complex interactions among many factors, including decreased urban albedo (ALB), increased thermal mass per unit area, increased city roughness, increased anthropogenic heat released from buildings and vehicles, and decreased evaporative areas (fewer trees and more impervious materials) ( Taha et al. 1988 ). Even though these causative factors have long been established, their relative importance remains uncertain

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Guoxiang Yang, Laura C. Bowling, Keith A. Cherkauer, Bryan C. Pijanowski, and Dev Niyogi

mean value according to the EPA definition was employed—that is, ISA of 35% in low urban density and 90% in high urban density. A better and more precise method is needed to quantify this percentage. Further, all of the ISA in this study was assumed to be effective impervious area (EIA), so the precipitation falling on it will become runoff directly, which may result in higher values of the simulated average R–B index and high-flow frequency than observed data at basin scale. Despite these

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