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K. K. Szeto, H. Tran, M. D. MacKay, R. Crawford, and R. E. Stewart

climate. In the GEWEX science plan, this pressing task is to be addressed in the so-called Water and Energy Budget Study (WEBS) that is first being carried out for the individual study basins selected for the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs), and then collectively under the coordination of the GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP; Lawford et al. 2004 ). WEBS in GEWEX CSEs differs from previous water and energy budget studies (e.g., Berbery et al. 1999 ; Trenberth et al. 2001 ; Roads et al

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

example, different reanalyses respond to global forcing with different circulation perturbations ( Chen et al. 2008a ). With several generations of reanalyses to consider, the various datasets generated from these efforts show large variance in the processes of the global water and energy budgets ( Chen et al. 2008a , b ; TFK09 ; Bosilovich et al. 2008 , 2009 ). Kalnay et al. (1996) , Uppala et al. (2005) , and Onogi et al. (2007) provide some of the most important overviews of existing long

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Joseph Egger

must be incorporated in a comprehensive theory of mountain-induced energy transfers. 2. Energy exchanges due to mountains a. Complete energy budget As stated above it is customary to consider the atmospheric energy budget in the form (1.1) , which includes the kinetic energy of the relative atmospheric motion but excludes the contribution by the rotation of the atmosphere ( Lorenz 1967 ; Dutton and Johnson 1967 ; Peixoto and Oort 1992 ; Wiin-Nielsen and Chen 1992 ). However, a complete energy

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John T. Fasullo and Kevin E. Trenberth

1. Introduction The primary driver of Earth’s climate system is the uneven distribution of net downward radiation ( R T ) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA; see appendix A for a list of acronyms and variables used in this paper) owing principally to sun–Earth geometry. Upon entering the system, the incoming radiative flux is partitioned among internal heat, and potential, latent, and kinetic energy ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2004 ). While basic aspects of the global mean TOA budget, such as

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John T. Fasullo and Kevin E. Trenberth

1. Introduction The meridional contrast in the distribution of net downward radiation ( R T ) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is largely imposed by the sun–Earth orbital geometry and thus is a fundamental property of the climate system, although it also reflects the collective influences of the atmospheric and ocean circulations, and the distributions of water vapor, clouds, and the surface on the planetary energy budget. Fasullo and Trenberth (2008 , hereafter FT08 ) provide an assessment

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Michael Mayer, Steffen Tietsche, Leopold Haimberger, Takamasa Tsubouchi, Johannes Mayer, and Hao Zuo

1. Introduction The Arctic climate system is characterized by net energy loss to space throughout most of the year. Sustained poleward heat transports by atmosphere and ocean are required to balance this radiative imbalance ( Peixoto and Oort 1992 ). In addition, there is a strong seasonality in the Arctic energy budget due to the strong seasonality of insolation, leaving an imprint on energy fluxes and storage. Thorough quantification of the long-term average, mean annual cycle, and trends of

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Pamela E. Mlynczak, G. Louis Smith, and David R. Doelling

Earth’s global energy budget. Their focus was on the global-mean energy budget without regard to the geographical distribution of radiation in or out of the Earth system. Fasullo and Trenberth (2008) considered the annual cycle of zonally averaged meridional transport of energy in conjunction with the energetics of the atmosphere. Loeb et al. (2009) also discussed the annual cycle of the global net radiation. Trenberth and Stepaniak (2004) examined the flow of energy in the atmosphere and

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Zhengqiu Zhang, Xiuji Zhou, Weiliang Li, and Michael Sparrow

1. Introduction Many experiments have proven that soil moisture has important effects on short-term climate and hydrology changes ( Yeh et al., 1984 ). However, the effects of water phase transitions on the ground energy budget have not been considered. In pioneering land surface studies, even the moisture effects were not taken into account in some land surface schemes ( Deardroff, 1978 ; Ji et al., 1989 ). In more detailed studies, some schemes parameterized the water phase transition

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Eric D. Maloney

content is discharged to the atmosphere during the MJO convective phase (e.g., Sobel and Gildor 2003 ; Stephens et al. 2004 ; Agudelo et al. 2006 ). The regulation of the atmospheric MSE budget during MJO events is not well understood. Shallow convection and associated shallow vertical circulations may help moisten the atmospheric column and contribute to moist static energy buildup before MJO deep convection commences (e.g., Johnson et al. 1999 ; Kikuchi and Takayuba 2004 ; Kiladis et al. 2005

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F. Hugo Lambert and Myles R. Allen

to write down changes in precipitation via a simple formula—particularly where advection of energy in or out of the region considered is important. For example, because zonal mean precipitation is dominated by changes in moisture convergence and divergence, precipitation changes take opposing signs at different latitudes. We must be careful, therefore, when applying energy budget constraints below global scale that our results are meaningful, such as for surface-based observed precipitation data

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