Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11,048 items for :

  • Energy budget/balance x
  • All content x
Clear All
Seiji Kato, Kuan-Man Xu, Takmeng Wong, Norman G. Loeb, Fred G. Rose, Kevin E. Trenberth, and Tyler J. Thorsen

measurements. As a result, in order to balance the surface energy budget Trenberth et al. (2009) chose to adjust the surface downward longwave irradiance, which increased the irradiance by about 12 W m −2 from the value estimated more recently from satellite observations. The uncertainty (1 σ ) in the global annual mean surface downward longwave irradiance estimated by Kato et al. (2012) in the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) surface product is 7

Full access
Alan K. Betts and Pedro Viterbo

continent into the Arctic Ocean. The Mackenzie basin is large (drainage area of 1.8 × 10 6 km 2 ), and surface and upper-air observations are relatively sparse, so models are essential to estimate the surface energy and water balance over the annual cycle. This paper summarizes the liquid and frozen surface water and energy budgets from the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) operational model for two years from 1 September 1996 to 31 August 1998 for seven subbasins of the ECMWF model

Full access
Wenhui Cui and Ting Fong May Chui

hypothesized that neglecting lateral heat fluxes in the subsurface could contribute to the energy imbalance over the heterogeneous surface and that the level of energy balance closure could be improved if the lateral heat fluxes were considered. 2. Method Field measurements were performed using an eddy covariance system and an array of temperature and water-level sensors. The eddy covariance system was used to obtain the energy budget of a vegetated area, and the sensors were used to capture the

Full access
Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

al. 2011 ). In reviewing the observed global energy budget, TFK09 also compared the reanalysis energy budgets (specifically ERA-40, NCEP–DOE R2, and JRA-25), and some similar biases are evident. First, the net TOA energy did not balance well, with too much upward flux. However, JRA-25 bias is related to too much outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), while NCEP–DOE R2 is due to too much reflected shortwave radiation, but both imbalances were on the order of 10 W m −2 . Also, all reanalyses had

Full access
Lei Zhou, Adam H. Sobel, and Raghu Murtugudde

in the momentum equations [Eq. (1) ], the balance between these two terms indicates that the kinetic energy associated with MJO events is mainly controlled by linear processes, at least in the coarse view offered by the vertically and meridionally integrated kinetic energy budget. The horizontal structures of the most important terms (averaged between 1000 and 100 hPa in the vertical and over all MJO days) in the kinetic energy budget are shown in Figs. 6a and 6b . Positive [KE′ × PE′] and

Full access
Colin Plank and Bryan Shuman

wetlands on boreal climate. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4520 . doi:10.1029/2002JD002597 . Kutzbach , J. E. , 1980 : Estimates of past climate at paleolake Chad, North Africa, based on a hydrological and energy balance model. Quat. Res. , 14 , 210 – 223 . Nagarajan , B. , M. K. Yau , and P. H. Schuepp , 2004 : The effects of small water bodies on the atmospheric heat and water budgets over the MacKenzie river basin. Hydrol. Processes , 18 , 913 – 938 . NCDC , 1994 : Time bias

Full access
Andrea Ucker Timm, Débora R. Roberti, Nereu Augusto Streck, Luis Gustavo G. de Gonçalves, Otávio Costa Acevedo, Osvaldo L. L. Moraes, Virnei S. Moreira, Gervásio Annes Degrazia, Mitja Ferlan, and David L. Toll

data processing, gap filling, and energy balance Before computing the turbulent fluxes, the raw data undergo a quality-control stage ( Baldocchi et al. 1988 ; Wyngaard 1990 ; Aubinet et al. 2000 ), which comprises inadequate sensor frequency response correction, despiking, coordinate rotation, and air density adjustments. The turbulent fluxes were calculated over 1-h windows, allowing low-frequency processes, which in turn represent a relevant contribution to the energy budget closure ( Sakai et

Full access
Yang Yang, Robert H. Weisberg, Yonggang Liu, and X. San Liang

assimilated to interrupt the forward run, the model outputs are kinematically and dynamically consistent, and hence are suitable for energy budget analyses. It should be mentioned that, due to the complexity of the LC system, it is almost impossible for a non-data-assimilative model to capture every observed shedding event in a single multiyear run. However, several key features of the LC are found to be well reproduced in the model. For instance, the spatial patterns of the modeled time-mean surface

Restricted access
Michael Previdi, Karen L. Smith, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

. 2004 ). 3. Climatological mean energy budget Individual components of the climatological mean Antarctic energy budget are shown in Table 1 for each month of the year and for the annual mean. In most months and in the annual average, the first-order balance is between the TOA net radiation F TOA:NET and the horizontal energy flux convergence F WALL , with the net surface energy flux and energy storage being small in comparison. This confirms the findings of earlier studies ( NO88 ; Genthon and

Full access
Pamela E. Mlynczak, G. Louis Smith, and David R. Doelling

Earth’s global energy budget. Their focus was on the global-mean energy budget without regard to the geographical distribution of radiation in or out of the Earth system. Fasullo and Trenberth (2008) considered the annual cycle of zonally averaged meridional transport of energy in conjunction with the energetics of the atmosphere. Loeb et al. (2009) also discussed the annual cycle of the global net radiation. Trenberth and Stepaniak (2004) examined the flow of energy in the atmosphere and

Full access