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J. N. Moum, J. M. Klymak, J. D. Nash, A. Perlin, and W. D. Smyth

onshore at 12 km. Net fluid transport by these waves counters the offshore bottom Ekman transport. When and where the internal tide steepens, it is frequently found that a significant portion of the tidal energy goes to generation of a nonlinear internal wave field [see Helfrich and Melville (2006) for a recent review]. Since stratification is more typically strong near the surface and this is where most observations have taken place, the result that we typically observe is a surface-trapped wave

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John T. Fasullo and Kevin E. Trenberth

variability associated with the annual cycle ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a , 2004 ), and for El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and interannual variability ( Trenberth et al. 2002 ; Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a ). Addressed here is quantification of the meridional structure of both the annual mean and the annual cycle of energy transport and storage, and the improvement of uncertainty estimates associated with deficiencies in the duration of observations and other shortcomings. Moreover, as the

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Yao Ha, Zhong Zhong, Yijia Hu, and Xiuqun Yang

anomalies, and the decreased TC activity in the western WNP is attributed to the strengthening of the WNP subtropical high and the anomalous subsidence associated with upper-troposphere convergence during El Niño ( Chan 2000 ; Wang and Chan 2002 ; Zhou et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2009 ). Zhan et al. (2011a) suggested that ENSO modulates barotropic energy conversion over the WNP, which contributes both to TC genesis location and number of intense TC in the WNP. TC intensity and meridional transport of

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Michael Mayer and Leopold Haimberger

1. Introduction Horizontal energy transports within the atmosphere and ocean have to balance the differential radiative heating by the sun. Especially from the late 1970s onward, when global satellite measurements became available, numerous scientific papers estimated the total poleward energy transport and its partition between the atmospheric and oceanic domain using different datasets (e.g., Carissimo et al. 1985 ; Zhang and Rossow 1997 ; Fasullo and Trenberth 2008b , hereafter FT08b

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Ray Yamada and Olivier Pauluis

1. Introduction Midlatitude storms make up an essential part of the climatological atmospheric circulation. They are responsible for most of the poleward transport of energy and water and maintain the surface westerlies against friction (e.g., Peixoto and Oort 1992 ; Vallis 2006 ). Understanding their variability is important for assessing how the distribution of wind, temperature, water, and other atmospheric tracers may change over time. The impact of their variability on the large

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Yong-Jhih Chen, Yen-Ting Hwang, and Paulo Ceppi

1. Introduction Meridional energy transport plays an important role in modulating the response of the climate system to external forcings. Despite its important influence on regional climate, the response of meridional energy transport to increasing CO 2 concentration exhibits large uncertainty across climate models ( Huang and Zhang 2014 ; Zelinka and Hartmann 2012 ). A large portion of the intermodel diversity is attributed to the uncertainty in cloud-radiative changes, based on diagnostics

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Rune G. Graversen and Peter L. Langen

1. Introduction The atmospheric energy transport plays a crucial role for the climate at the high latitudes. This transport brings to the polar areas an amount of energy comparable to that provided directly by the sun ( Oort and Peixóto 1983 ). Therefore a small variation at the polar boundary of this transport may affect the high-latitude climate considerably ( Graversen 2006 ). It has also been argued that the atmospheric energy transport plays a role in climate change at the high latitudes

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Aaron Donohoe, John Marshall, David Ferreira, Kyle Armour, and David McGee

1. Introduction The region of intense tropical precipitation, known as the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), is collocated with the ascending branch of the Hadley cell ( Hadley 1735 ). The atmospheric heat transport in the deep tropics is dominated by the mean overturning circulation, with net heat transport oriented in the direction of motion in the upper branch of the Hadley cell ( Held 2001 ). Therefore, energy is transported away from the ITCZ. Consequently, an ITCZ in the Southern

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Dargan M. W. Frierson, Isaac M. Held, and Pablo Zurita-Gotor

1. Introduction In midlatitudes, the poleward transport of heat in the atmosphere dominates over the oceanic contribution ( Trenberth and Caron 2001 ). Dry static energy and moisture fluxes contribute more or less equally to the atmospheric flux ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003b ). Since moisture fluxes play such an important role in the total poleward energy transport, there could potentially be large changes in energy fluxes and hence temperature gradients in climates with increased moisture

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Kevin E. Trenberth and John T. Fasullo

whole and transports of energy and water from ocean to land, and then more detailed results are given for the major landmasses, excepting for Antarctica. Included here are estimates for Eurasia, North and South America, Africa, and Australia. While we have also computed results for Greenland and Antarctica, the large nonstationary component associated with melting land ice warrants special treatment in those regions and is taken up elsewhere. The hydrological cycle and its changes over time are of

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