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Jiangnan Li and Petr Chylek

1. Introduction The nonequilibrium thermodynamics corresponding to climatological atmospheric entropy production is a fundamental problem that needs to be extensively explored. In the last several decades, entropy, related to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, has been applied to various problems in the atmospheric sciences, for example, the general circulation of the atmosphere ( Peixoto and Oort 1992 ; Johnson 1997 ; Goody 2000 ; Takamitsu and Kleidon 2005 ; Fraedrich and Lunkeit 2008

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Richard Goody

1. The MEP hypothesis Paltridge (1975 , 1978 ) first proposed that Earth’s climate structure might be explained from a hypothesis of maximum entropy production (MEP). If correct, this proposal would be of crucial importance to future climate research because it provides the hitherto missing global constraint of the second law of thermodynamics. Subsequent investigations have generally supported Paltridge’s work, but not to the degree that MEP is accepted as a useful principle in modern climate

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Alexander Kostinski and Will Cantrell

. Thus, the latent heat measurements are not direct and, as argued below, involve assumptions whose validity, while unquestionable for phase equilibrium, is not clear in the supercooled (metastable) domain (see appendix A ). Therefore, our second goal is to employ entropic considerations in order to facilitate an interpretation of difficult experiments and constrain the measurements. 2. The entropy constraint We regard a supercooled droplet as a thermodynamic system and the ambient air as the heat

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Seiji Kato and Fred G. Rose

atmosphere and heats the atmosphere when it condenses. Energy transport is also associated with heating and cooling by radiation, dynamics, and water vapor phase change, which in turn alter entropy of the Earth system. Entropy is produced by heating and cooling by irreversible processes. In addition, entropy is carried by radiation. Entropy produced by a blackbody is, therefore, the sum of entropy produced by radiative cooling and entropy carried by the blackbody radiation ( Planck 1913 ). For the Earth

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Goodwin Gibbins and Joanna D. Haigh

1. Introduction a. Motivation The climate is, fundamentally, an entropy-producing system. The movement of energy from warmer regions, where it is supplied to the climate, to cooler regions, where it leaves, is an inevitable consequence of the second law of thermodynamics and drives the motion and activity of the climate. The energy transfers are mediated by a myriad of irreversible processes: for example, wind, rain, and radiation. Each process produces entropy, which must be exported from the

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David M. Romps

1. Introduction To motivate the study of the entropy budget, consider first an enclosed, dry atmosphere. For an enclosed atmosphere in a steady state, the sum of all the entropy sources must be zero (here, “sources” is shorthand for sources and sinks). In the case of an enclosed, dry atmosphere, all of the entropy sources are simply heat sources divided by the temperature. For example, possible heat sources include radiation ( Q ), conduction of heat (− ∇ · J , where J is the conductive

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George H. Bryan

derived with a small number of reasonable assumptions. The subsequent formulation has accuracy that is comparable to other approximate formulations, but has the distinct advantage of having consistent formulations for other thermodynamical variables (e.g., total moist entropy and enthalpy). The new formulation is reasonably accurate, inexpensive, adaptable, and attractive for theoretical studies, which is a combination of characteristics that may be unrivaled by all other formulations that have been

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George H. Bryan and Richard Rotunno

was put forth by PM03 , which has further been evaluated using observations by Montgomery et al. (2006) , Aberson et al. (2006) , and Bell and Montgomery (2008) and using numerical simulations by Persing and Montgomery (2005) and Cram et al. (2007) . The theory posits that the locally high-entropy air at low levels in the tropical cyclone’s eye can provide an additional source of energy that is not considered in E-MPI. This process has been referred to as the “superintensity” mechanism

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W. T. M. Verkley and Peter Lynch

this article we wish to build further on Burgers’ approach to forced-dissipative turbulence. If we identify a frequency distribution with a probability density function, then maximizing its multiplicity is, for all practical purposes, equivalent to maximizing Shannon’s information entropy. Frequency distributions with the highest multiplicity can be realized by nature in the largest number of ways so that probability density functions with maximum entropy are optimal statistical descriptions of any

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Biao Wang, Teruyuki Nakajima, and Guangyu Shi

that the overall entropy production (EP) rate of turbulent processes of the climate system tends to take its maximum value when the modeled circulation intensity and the distribution of temperature and cloudiness are close to those observed in the climate system. An updated version of the model has been used to investigate the feedbacks of cloud, water vapor, and lapse rate to the doubled CO 2 in the atmosphere ( Paltridge et al. 2007 ). The result indicates that clouds in a long-term average, no

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