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Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Josep Calbó, and Javier Martin-Vide

air pollution regulatory actions in developed countries and also due to declining economies in most eastern European countries in the late 1980s ( Streets et al. 2006 ). There might be a relationship between solar radiation at the earth’s surface and air temperature variations ( Kaiser and Qian 2002 ). Thus, dimming is consistent with the hypothesis that anthropogenic aerosol cooling effect partially offset greenhouse warming over much of Eurasia during the 1960s through the 1980s ( Charlson et al

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Ricardo García-Herrera, Jose M. Garrido-Perez, David Barriopedro, Carlos Ordóñez, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Rogert Sorí, and Pascal Yiou

1. Introduction Droughts are among the main hydroclimatic hazards, but they are very difficult to quantify and spatially map ( Wilhite and Pulwarty 2017 ). They cause large economic losses, water scarcity, some ecological impacts such as decreases in gross primary production (e.g., Ciais et al. 2005 ), and the occurrence of forest fires (e.g., Pausas 2004 ). In Europe, the economic losses associated with droughts have been increasing since the early 2000s, with an average of 6758 million

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B. Bisselink and A. J. Dolman

simple one-dimensional recycling model derived by Budyko (1974) and on the atmospheric moisture balance in a region ( Brubaker et al. 1993 ; Eltahir and Bras 1994 ; Schär et al. 1999 ; Trenberth 1999 ; Bosilovich and Schubert 2001 ). Brubaker et al. (1993) extended Budyko’s model into two dimensions, and Trenberth (1999) and Schär et al. (1999) used this model for their studies of global recycling and for the analysis of recycling in Europe. Eltahir and Bras (1994) developed a bulk

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Mxolisi E. Shongwe, Christopher A. T. Ferro, Caio A. S. Coelho, and Geert Jan van Oldenborgh

1. Introduction The seasonal prediction of near-surface temperatures over many parts of the globe has received considerable attention. In fact, together with precipitation, seasonal prediction of 2-m temperature has a wide application. Considerable effort has gone into predictions of mean temperatures over many parts of the globe including Europe (e.g., Barnston and Smith 1996 ). However, it is extreme temperatures such as heat waves and cold outbreaks that have a larger effect on human

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Daniel G. Kingston, James H. Stagge, Lena M. Tallaksen, and David M. Hannah

southern Europe ( Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2013 ). Given the likelihood of increased drought hazard and the need to mitigate drought impacts, improved understanding of the controls on drought occurrence is vital. Such knowledge is critical to enable improved detection and prediction of drought onset. Previous studies have sought to establish the atmospheric controls on drought occurrence at the European (or sub-European) scale, for both meteorological and streamflow drought indicators. Several

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Bogdan Antonescu, Tomáš Púçik, and David M. Schultz

1. Introduction The first known tornado forecast in Europe occurred on 25 June 1967 when meteorologists from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) recognized that, following several tornadoes upstream over northern France on 24 June, the synoptic pattern was not changing overnight. Dutch weatherman Joop den Tonkelaar appeared on an early morning radio show on 25 June and warned about the possibility of tornadoes over the Netherlands later that day. His forecast was based on a

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Breanna L. Zavadoff and Ben P. Kirtman

( Lavers and Villarini 2015 ; Debbage et al. 2017 ). In the Northern Hemisphere ARs primarily make landfall over the U.S. West Coast and western Europe ( Guan and Waliser 2015 ), making both regions active areas for AR research. For both the western United States and western Europe ARs have been established as crucial components of the hydrological cycle, because they provide each region with 20%–30% of their annual precipitation ( Neiman et al. 2008 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015 ). In addition, over

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

climate models (RCMs) enables studies of local effects. RCMs improve the representation of regional-scale climate features (e.g., Rummukainen 2010 ). For future climates, the effects of afforestation have been studied with RCMs in Europe (e.g., Wramneby et al. 2010 ; Gálos et al. 2012 ), North America (e.g., Alexandru and Sushama 2016 ), Africa (e.g., Wu et al. 2016 ), and South America (e.g., Wu et al. 2017 ). The main finding is that the climate mitigation benefits of afforestation (due to CO

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C. Kidd, P. Bauer, J. Turk, G. J. Huffman, R. Joyce, K.-L. Hsu, and D. Braithwaite

uncertainties, can outperform products constructed from individual observation types ( Ebert et al. 2007 ; Lu et al. 2010 ). This paper addresses the performance of satellite precipitation products and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) NWP model estimates over northwest Europe at the higher midlatitudes. The region covered by this study extends from 30° to 60°N, 20°W to 20°E encompassing a range of climatological zones from maritime to continental and from semiarid to

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Jouni Heiskanen, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, Carlo Calfapietra, Huilin Chen, Bert Gielen, Thanos Gkritzalis, Samuel Hammer, Susan Hartman, Mathias Herbst, Ivan A. Janssens, Armin Jordan, Eija Juurola, Ute Karstens, Ville Kasurinen, Bart Kruijt, Harry Lankreijer, Ingeborg Levin, Maj-Lena Linderson, Denis Loustau, Lutz Merbold, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Dario Papale, Marian Pavelka, Kim Pilegaard, Michel Ramonet, Corinna Rebmann, Janne Rinne, Léonard Rivier, Elena Saltikoff, Richard Sanders, Martin Steinbacher, Tobias Steinhoff, Andrew Watson, Alex T. Vermeulen, Timo Vesala, Gabriela Vítková, and Werner Kutsch

drivers of feedback mechanisms over both. The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), which currently includes over 140 stations, was designed as the European in situ observation and information system to support science and society in their efforts to mitigate climate change. ICOS is motivated by understanding the sources, sinks, and cycling of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere–biosphere–hydrosphere continuum. The European Commission, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands

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