Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19,110 items for :

  • Extreme events x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Christopher A. T. Ferro
and
David B. Stephenson

1. Introduction Extreme weather events such as high wind speeds, heavy precipitation, or high temperatures can have severe impacts on society. Improving predictions of such events therefore has a high priority in national weather services, and an important part of this activity is to determine whether or not prediction quality is improved when prediction systems are updated. Assessing the quality of predictions of extreme weather events, however, is complicated by the fact that measures of

Full access
Pao-Shin Chu
,
Xin Zhao
,
Ying Ruan
, and
Melodie Grubbs

mainland United States, extreme rainfall events in Hawaii have received little attention. Because of the socioeconomic repercussions of heavy rainfall and the associated floods on the islands, it is important to understand the frequency, intensity, locations, and patterns of these extreme events across the entire Hawaiian Islands. We thus propose to investigate the nature and spatial distributions of heavy and very heavy rainfall events in Hawaii. Three different methods have commonly been used to

Full access
Megan C. Kirchmeier-Young
,
David J. Lorenz
, and
Daniel J. Vimont

1. Introduction While extreme events are of interest for many climate impacts studies, global coupled general circulation models (GCMs) often mute extremes with their coarse resolution, particularly for precipitation (e.g., Sillmann et al. 2013 ), and alone are not sufficient for assessments on a regional or local level. Downscaling methodologies aim to solve this scale mismatch issue by extracting high-resolution information from the coarse-resolution simulations. Downscaling methods can be

Full access
Er Lu
,
Wei Zhao
,
Xukai Zou
,
Dianxiu Ye
,
Chunyu Zhao
, and
Qiang Zhang

formation mechanisms of the extreme events and is particularly important to the reliable assessment of the long-term changes in the extremes. Karl et al. (1996) constructed the climate extremes index (CEI) with multiple quantities, attempting to indicate the overall extreme condition in the climate. In many previous studies, extremes were extracted from a single climate quantity (e.g., the precipitation) and for each of the observation stations or a specific region examined. With daily precipitation

Full access
Qiaohong Sun
,
Francis Zwiers
,
Xuebin Zhang
, and
Yaheng Tan

1. Introduction Extreme precipitation can induce floods, landslides, soil erosion, damage to property and infrastructure, and even loss of life. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is the most prominent global-scale mode of interannual variability, impacts many regions of the globe through atmospheric teleconnections, affecting extreme weather events worldwide. Previous studies suggest that ENSO influences different parts of the daily precipitation distribution differently, and

Open access
Alice M. Grimm
and
Renata G. Tedeschi

of South America during the different phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (e.g., Ropelewski and Halpert 1987 , 1989 ; Aceituno 1988 ; Rao and Hada 1990 ; Grimm et al. 1998 , 2000 ; Grimm 2003 , 2004 ). Given the dependence of monthly to seasonal precipitation amounts on the frequency of extreme precipitation events, it is reasonable to expect the frequency of extreme rainfall events to be modulated by ENSO in some preferred locations. However, this does not mean that regions with

Full access
Julien Cattiaux
,
Aurélien Ribes
, and
Vikki Thompson

Extreme weather events are rare, and so they inevitably attract attention and cause socioenvironmental impacts when they occur. Explaining events that have occurred and putting them in a climate perspective constitutes a key challenge for both national weather services and the “event attribution” community. The former have the responsibility to document historical weather events and maintain long-term statistics over their territory. This includes describing events from a synoptic

Open access
Christopher A. T. Ferro

1. Introduction Forecasting extreme weather events is a vital task and a focus for international research activities such as The Observing-System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) of the World Meteorological Organization. This article addresses a key component of this research: how should we assess the quality of forecasts of extreme events? We focus on events that are both extreme and rare. Such events pose at least three difficulties for forecast verification. First, only a

Full access
Gérémy Panthou
,
Alain Mailhot
,
Edward Laurence
, and
Guillaume Talbot

). Season (see, e.g., Berg et al. 2009 ; Mishra et al. 2012 ; Shaw et al. 2011 ): For Europe, Berg et al. (2009) found a monotonic increase structure in winter, a monotonic decrease structure in summer, and a peak-like structure for spring and autumn. Time scale: Many studies have shown that the time scale over which extreme rainfall events are estimated has a huge impact on the P extr – T a relationship ( Lenderink and van Meijgaard 2008 ; Haerter et al. 2010 ; Hardwick Jones et al. 2010

Full access
Juan A. Añel
,
Celia Pérez-Souto
,
Susana Bayo-Besteiro
,
Luis Prieto-Godino
,
Hannah Bloomfield
,
Alberto Troccoli
,
Laura de
, and
la Torre

1. Introduction The report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in August 2021 defines an extreme weather event as “an event that is rare at a particular place and time of year” ( Seneviratne et al. 2021 ). It is well known that extreme weather has huge socioeconomic impacts ( Lazo et al. 2020 ; Liu et al. 2020 ) and that climate change is exacerbating it ( Clarke et al. 2022 ). The study of extreme weather events (EWEs) has become a research field in itself, and

Open access