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S. R. Hanna
and
Y. Zhou

1. Introduction This paper focuses on the variations in time and space of turbulence observations in large cities with high building densities and many tall skyscrapers. Emphasis is on the Midtown 2005 field experiment (MID05) in Manhattan, New York ( Allwine and Flaherty 2007 ). The observations are made using sonic anemometers at heights of a few meters above street level and at a few rooftop locations. Hanna et al. (2007) presented the results of analysis of similar street-level and

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Steve Warner
,
Nathan Platt
,
Jeffry T. Urban
, and
James F. Heagy

subject of validation efforts within our group for several years. A few recent field experiments have included the release of environmentally safe, inert, tracer gases in urban environments. For example, tracer gases were released in Salt Lake City, Utah, in 2000 in a field experiment referred to as Urban 2000 ( Allwine et al. 2002 ) and were released during the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah ( Biltoft 2002 ). An important use of the data collected during these field

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David A. Peterson
,
Laura H. Thapa
,
Pablo E. Saide
,
Amber J. Soja
,
Emily M. Gargulinski
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Manuel Schöberl
,
Philippe P. Papin
,
Shobha Kondragunta
,
Christopher P. Camacho
,
Charles Ichoku
,
Richard H. Moore
,
Johnathan W. Hair
,
James H. Crawford
,
Philip E. Dennison
,
Olga V. Kalashnikova
,
Christel E. Bennese
,
Thaopaul P. Bui
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Marta A. Fenn
,
Hannah S. Halliday
,
Jose Jimenez
,
John B. Nowak
,
Claire Robinson
,
Kevin Sanchez
,
Taylor J. Shingler
,
Lee Thornhill
,
Elizabeth B. Wiggins
,
Edward Winstead
, and
Chuanyu Xu

Williams Flats fire in Washington State as part of the 2019 FIREX-AQ field experiment. NASA’s DC-8 Flying Laboratory operated in the upper troposphere, within the upper portion of three ice-capped convective columns, or pyroCb pulses. A wide variety of in situ measurements were obtained in 11 transects that include active pyroCb cloud tops, fresh smoke outflow immediately downwind of the fire, and a detached pyroCb anvil 80–100 km downwind. Cloud probe measurements, airborne lidar, and ground

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Edward I. Tollerud
,
Fernando Caracena
,
Steven E. Koch
,
Brian D. Jamison
,
R. Michael Hardesty
,
Brandi J. McCarty
,
Christoph Kiemle
,
Randall S. Collander
,
Diana L. Bartels
,
Steven Albers
,
Brent Shaw
,
Daniel L. Birkenheuer
, and
W. Alan Brewer

dropsonde measurements of wind, pressure, temperature, and moisture) were included in some parallel runs via a modified telescoping Barnes scheme. The vertical resolution of the LAPS analyses was 25 hPa. During the field experiment, the NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory (now the Global Systems Division of the ESRL) provided real-time mesoscale numerical model guidance to the IHOP_2002 operations center from multiple advanced modeling systems with the goal of assessing their performance in a quasi

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Cathy Hohenegger
,
Felix Ament
,
Frank Beyrich
,
Ulrich Löhnert
,
Henning Rust
,
Jens Bange
,
Tobias Böck
,
Christopher Böttcher
,
Jakob Boventer
,
Finn Burgemeister
,
Marco Clemens
,
Carola Detring
,
Igor Detring
,
Noviana Dewani
,
Ivan Bastak Duran
,
Stephanie Fiedler
,
Martin Göber
,
Chiel van Heerwaarden
,
Bert Heusinkveld
,
Bastian Kirsch
,
Daniel Klocke
,
Christine Knist
,
Ingo Lange
,
Felix Lauermann
,
Volker Lehmann
,
Jonas Lehmke
,
Ronny Leinweber
,
Kristina Lundgren
,
Matthieu Masbou
,
Matthias Mauder
,
Wouter Mol
,
Hannes Nevermann
,
Tatiana Nomokonova
,
Eileen Päschke
,
Andreas Platis
,
Jens Reichardt
,
Luc Rochette
,
Mirjana Sakradzija
,
Linda Schlemmer
,
Jürg Schmidli
,
Nima Shokri
,
Vincent Sobottke
,
Johannes Speidel
,
Julian Steinheuer
,
David D. Turner
,
Hannes Vogelmann
,
Christian Wedemeyer
,
Eduardo Weide-Luiz
,
Sarah Wiesner
,
Norman Wildmann
,
Kevin Wolz
, and
Tamino Wetz

poor coverage in rural areas. To resolve small-scale heterogeneity in updrafts and cold pools, the recent C 3 LOUD-Ex campaign experimented with a flying curtain of two to three stationary drones deployed over a horizontal distance of 100 m to 1 km (see Fig. 5 in van den Heever et al. 2021 ). Observing the atmosphere at kilometer scales from the surface remains challenging. The Field Experiment on Submesoscale Spatio-Temporal Variability in Lindenberg (FESSTVaL) took place from 17 May to 27

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Ibrahim Demir
,
Helen Conover
,
Witold F. Krajewski
,
Bong-Chul Seo
,
Radosław Goska
,
Yubin He
,
Michael F. McEniry
,
Sara J. Graves
, and
Walter Petersen

discussion to the data management aspects of the IFloodS campaign cyberinfrastructure. Other aspects, such as selection of the sensors and their deployment, data transmission modes, relevant atmospheric and hydrologic models, and data analyses are described in other papers included in this special collection. The GPM Ground Validation (GV) program has conducted a series of field experiments approximately once per year since 2010, as shown in Table 1 . Informatics experts at the Global Hydrology Resource

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Yu-Hsuan Lin
,
Hen-I Lin
,
Fang-I Wen
, and
Sheng-Jang Sheu

insurance. The same authors claimed that ambiguity and risk preference are two independent concepts, while most decision-makers are risk seekers and ambiguity averse. Desrochers and Outreville (2013) evaluated the effects of risk preferences on willingness to participate in a rural environment protection scheme and found that farmers supported using that scheme as a tool for risk management. Unlike laboratory experiments, field experiments have the advantage of accessing the true targets of the

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Toru Kawai
and
Manabu Kanda

the SEB observed in COSMO were compared with those observed in other long-term field experiments. The current availability of datasets appropriate for studying the SEB of a city is limited. The pioneering study of Grimmond and Oke (1999) examined the urban SEB obtained from seven cities within a 30°-wide latitude band in North America. These cities encompassed a wide variety of climates, geometries, and surface covers. However, all of their datasets were obtained from short-term observations, as

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Joseph B. Olson
,
Brian A. Colle
,
Nicholas A. Bond
, and
Nathaniel Winstead

barrier jets typically occur when there is an upper-level trough over the Aleutian Islands and a ridge over western Canada, which favors low-level southerly flow impinging toward the Alaskan coastal terrain ( Colle et al. 2006 ). The mesoscale structure of barrier jets in southeast Alaska was investigated using research aircraft measurements collected during the Southeastern Alaskan Regional Jets (SARJET) experiment between 24 September and 21 October 2004 ( Fig. 1 ; Winstead et al. 2006 ). SARJET

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Joseph B. Olson
,
Brian A. Colle
,
Nicholas A. Bond
, and
Nathaniel Winstead

barrier jets typically occur when there is an upper-level trough over the Aleutian Islands and a ridge over western Canada, which favors low-level southerly flow impinging toward the Alaskan coastal terrain ( Colle et al. 2006 ). The mesoscale structure of barrier jets in southeast Alaska was investigated using research aircraft measurements collected during the Southeastern Alaskan Regional Jets (SARJET) experiment between 24 September and 21 October 2004 ( Fig. 1 ; Winstead et al. 2006 ). SARJET

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