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Mark R. Jury and David M. Sanchez

troughs penetrating into the Caribbean during and immediately after El Niño events ( Laing 2004 ). Rainfall during spring is beneficial for Caribbean-wide crop production as evidenced, from research conducted by the authors, by a positive correlation between time series of year-end yield and collocated March–May rainfall ( r = 0.54 over 43 yr). However, subtropical troughs may combine with tropical moisture to create floods over the Antilles Islands ( Gu and Zhang 2002 ) that contribute to erosion

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Stephen M. Jessup and Arthur T. DeGaetano

1. Introduction Flash flood forecasting presents many challenges. Quantitative precipitation forecasting remains a challenging forecasting task itself ( Fritsch and Carbone 2004 ), yet flash flood forecasting also combine hydrological, topographical, and anthropogenic features that contribute uncertainty and nonlinearity, complicating the decision-making process. The National Weather Service (NWS) defines a flash flood as a flood that occurs within 6 h of the onset of the causative event ( NWS

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Peirong Lin, Larry J. Hopper Jr., Zong-Liang Yang, Mark Lenz, and Jon W. Zeitler

1. Introduction and motivation Improving forecasts and impact-based decision support for flooding is critical because it is the deadliest severe weather hazard in the United States, with a 10-yr average of over 90 fatalities a year ( NWS 2016a ). Flood fatality and damage costs continue to increase ( Pielke et al. 2002 ; Downton et al. 2005 ) as extreme rainfall events become more intense and frequent in the extratropics ( Trenberth et al. 2003 ; Boucher et al. 2013 ). In flood- and hurricane

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Steven M. Martinaitis, Benjamin Albright, Jonathan J. Gourley, Sarah Perfater, Tiffany Meyer, Zachary L. Flamig, Robert A. Clark, Humberto Vergara, and Mark Klein

1. Introduction One of the more significant weather events in the United States during the 2016 calendar year occurred on 23 June across an area from northern Kentucky to central Virginia. The greatest impacts were in West Virginia and western Virginia from flash flooding, a flood caused by excessive rainfall that leads to a rapid rise in water within a 6-h period. Record rainfall accumulations of 200–250 mm were observed in this region over a 24-h period ending 1200 UTC 24 June 2016. The event

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A. Amengual, R. Romero, M. Gómez, A. Martín, and S. Alonso

1. Introduction The topography of the Spanish Mediterranean area makes it especially prone to flash-flood events. Mountain systems near the coast usually act as natural barriers to the warm moist Mediterranean air, inducing the generation of intense rainfall rates that show high variability in space and time. Serious damage can occur when intense convective rainfall events combine with short hydrological response times, characteristic of steep streams and increasing urbanization rates in

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Kevin M. Roche, K. John McAneney, Keping Chen, and Ryan P. Crompton

this development has occurred over a period of relative quiescence in terms of natural disasters ( Crompton and McAneney 2008 ). The purpose of the current study is to estimate the insured loss if a widespread flooding event, which took place in 1954, recurred under 2011 societal conditions. We also attempt a rough estimate of the associated economic loss. The accumulation of exposure on floodplains and failure to learn from past events was a feature of the losses from the large-scale flooding in

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Liping Deng, Matthew F. McCabe, Georgiy Stenchikov, Jason P. Evans, and Paul A. Kucera

1. Introduction Counterintuitively, flash-flood-type events are a natural phenomenon of many arid zone systems (e.g., Haggag and El-Badry 2013 ). In arid environments, precipitation can arrive in short and intense rainfall bursts. These events, when combined with dry and sometimes infiltration-limited soils that can form as a result of surface armoring (e.g., Al Saud 2010 ) and other geomorphological features, can translate directly into fast-flowing surface runoff. The ephemeral arterial dry

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A. Martín, R. Romero V, A. De Luque, S. Alonso, T. Rigo, and M. C. Llasat

1. Introduction Heavy rainfall episodes are a climatic feature of the western Mediterranean ( Font 1983 ; Romero et al. 1999 ; see Fig. 1 for all locations referred to in the text). Important highly populated areas are affected regularly by floods that produce human fatalities, substantial property losses, and impacts on the communication systems and landscape. Severe weather events typically occur in the region at the end of the summer (e.g., Homar et al. 2003a ) and during autumn (e

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Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

investigate the use of satellite rainfall estimates for flood simulations of small-scale basins (100–1200 km 2 ) and 1–3-h time scales. They demonstrated potential in satellite-based flood applications and showed that the efficiency of model predictions depends on the product resolution and the scale of application. However, in their study synthetic satellite fields were simulated based on a long rainfall record that incorporated events of various rain intensities, and was not focused only on heavy

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Trine J. Hegdahl, Kolbjørn Engeland, Malte Müller, and Jana Sillmann

western Norway, the most extreme precipitation, flood, and landslide events since 1900 can largely be attributed to atmospheric rivers ( Stohl et al. 2008 ; Lavers and Villarini 2013 , 2015 ; Azad and Sorteberg 2017 ; Benedict et al. 2019 ). Three recent examples of atmospheric rivers unfolded and affected western Norway quite differently. In September 2005, an atmospheric river hit the city of Bergen, with a precipitation intensity that was record high, and measured to 156.5 mm (24 h) −1 and 111

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