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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

site-specific hazard assessments, are being highlighted as an alternative approach to highly uncertainty top-down approaches. One of these bottom-up approaches was performed by Yigzaw et al. ( Yigzaw et al. 2012 ), where they argued that, since the rainfall–runoff process is a nonlinear process due to the complex interactions of precipitation with the watershed components, a renewed understanding of the influence of LULC changes and the characteristics of reservoirs on the extreme flood patterns is

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H. A. Titley, H. L. Cloke, S. Harrigan, F. Pappenberger, C. Prudhomme, J. C. Robbins, E. M. Stephens, and E. Zsótér

1. Introduction Considering fluvial flood hazards in tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting and warning is important because this is a leading cause of mortality and damages ( Rezapour and Baldock 2014 ). In the United States, drowning from excessive rainfall occurs in more TCs than deaths from any other cause ( Rappaport 2014 ). Many of these fatalities occur outside of landfall counties ( Czajkowski and Kennedy 2010 ) and in inland counties ( Rappaport 2000 ). The U.S. residential losses from TC

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Yangchen Lai, Jianfeng Li, Xihui Gu, Cancan Liu, and Yongqin David Chen

1. Introduction Floods are one of the most common and destructive natural hazards and have caused more than 317 000 deaths and more than 784 billion U.S. dollars in economic losses across the globe from 1970 to 2018 ( Guha-Sapir et al. 2018 ). Floods (defined as the accumulation of water over areas that are not normally submerged; IPCC 2012a ) can be further classified into different types based on the triggers: fluvial floods due to high upstream river discharge, pluvial floods resulting from

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Jen Henderson, Erik R. Nielsen, Gregory R. Herman, and Russ S. Schumacher

1. Introduction Weather hazards change and evolve over time. The same holds true for the way that individual vulnerabilities emerge and recede as people assess and understand their risks ( Morss et al. 2017 ). When hazards overlap and co-occur, there is an additional layer of complex assessment and adjudication of threats, both for forecasters and people in harm’s way. In the case of overlapping tornado and flash flood warnings, or TORFFs (e.g., Nielsen et al. 2015 ), it is important to

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Manabendra Saharia, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Humberto Vergara, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Marine Giroud

behind 25 selected extreme flash floods in Europe and related them to climate and basin morphology. They characterized these events in terms of basin morphology, flood-generating rainfall, peak discharges, runoff coefficient, and response time to improve flash flood risk management. Perucca and Angilieri (2011) approximated the basin behavior in response to rainstorms by evaluating the flash flood hazard of del Molle basin in Argentina. The study reported the probability of a serious flash flood

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Zhijun Huang, Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Guy Schumann, Jonathan J. Gourley, Albert Kettner, and Nergui Nanding

Floods are among the most prominent and catastrophic natural disasters in the world that account for a large portion of all geophysical hazards ( Smith and Ward 1998 ; Wahlstrom and Guha-Sapir 2015 ; Alexander 2018 ). The frequency of flood hazards has been increasing during recent decades ( Hirsch and Archfield 2015 ; Mallakpour and Villarini 2015 ; Wahlstrom and Guha-Sapir 2015 ), and more intense flood events are projected to increase in the future ( Milly et al. 2002 ; Hirabayashi et

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Sanjib Sharma, Michael Gomez, Klaus Keller, Robert E. Nicholas, and Alfonso Mejia

1. Introduction Floods drive major damages to communities across the globe, with an estimated annual average loss of U.S. $104 billion ( UNISDR 2015 ). These impacts are expected to rise in the future as the climate is changing and urbanization is changing exposure ( Alfieri et al. 2015 ; Hirabayashi et al. 2013 ; Wing et al. 2018 ; Winsemius et al. 2016 ). There is increasing interest in improving the understanding and quantification of future flood hazards in a changing climate ( Judi et

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

1. Introduction The southern United States is particularly at risk to extreme natural events associated with climate-sensitive hazards such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and sea level rise. Even in the absence of climate change, exposure to climate variability and climate-related extremes ( Goklany 2005 ; Thomalla et al. 2006 ) could mean potential increases in stronger hurricanes, heavier precipitation events leading to increased flooding, more frequent extensive droughts, and potential

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Qing Yang, Xinyi Shen, Feifei Yang, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Kang He, Chongxun Mo, Hojjat Seyyedi, Albert J. Kettner, and Qingyuan Zhang

and economic assets move to areas that are flood-prone but economically attractive for development ( Wing et al. 2018 ). Property inundation has a direct socioeconomic impact, often resulting in displacement or financial loss. The assessment of flood property damage in near–real time (NRT) remains challenging, however, because the interaction between hazard and loss varies in both space and time. As adopted by mechanistic modeling chains such as HAZUS-MH (Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard; Scawthorn et

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Stanley A. Changnon

Introduction Record-setting rainfall during 24 hours on 17–18 July 1996 produced a wide variety of physical and socioeconomic impacts. The major direct physical effect was the excessive flooding along four rivers and their tributaries in northeastern Illinois. High rainfall rates and flood waters eroded soils and damaged existing structures such as bridge abutments and roadways. Damaging flooding was recorded in south Chicago, in a sizable suburban area west and south of the city, and in

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