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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

site-specific hazard assessments, are being highlighted as an alternative approach to highly uncertainty top-down approaches. One of these bottom-up approaches was performed by Yigzaw et al. ( Yigzaw et al. 2012 ), where they argued that, since the rainfall–runoff process is a nonlinear process due to the complex interactions of precipitation with the watershed components, a renewed understanding of the influence of LULC changes and the characteristics of reservoirs on the extreme flood patterns is

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H. A. Titley, H. L. Cloke, S. Harrigan, F. Pappenberger, C. Prudhomme, J. C. Robbins, E. M. Stephens, and E. Zsótér

1. Introduction Considering fluvial flood hazards in tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting and warning is important because this is a leading cause of mortality and damages ( Rezapour and Baldock 2014 ). In the United States, drowning from excessive rainfall occurs in more TCs than deaths from any other cause ( Rappaport 2014 ). Many of these fatalities occur outside of landfall counties ( Czajkowski and Kennedy 2010 ) and in inland counties ( Rappaport 2000 ). The U.S. residential losses from TC

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Jen Henderson, Erik R. Nielsen, Gregory R. Herman, and Russ S. Schumacher

1. Introduction Weather hazards change and evolve over time. The same holds true for the way that individual vulnerabilities emerge and recede as people assess and understand their risks ( Morss et al. 2017 ). When hazards overlap and co-occur, there is an additional layer of complex assessment and adjudication of threats, both for forecasters and people in harm’s way. In the case of overlapping tornado and flash flood warnings, or TORFFs (e.g., Nielsen et al. 2015 ), it is important to

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Yangchen Lai, Jianfeng Li, Xihui Gu, Cancan Liu, and Yongqin David Chen

Abstract

During simultaneous or successive occurrences of precipitation and storm surges, the interplay of the two types of extremes can exacerbate the impact to a greater extent than either of them in isolation. The compound flood hazards from precipitation and storm surges vary across regions of the world because of the various weather conditions. By analyzing in-situ observations of precipitation and storm surges across the globe, we found that the return periods of compound floods with marginal values exceeding the 98.5th percentile (i.e., equivalent to a joint return period of 12 years if the marginal variables are independent) are < 2 years in most areas, while those in northern Europe are > 8 years due to weaker dependence. Our quantitative assessment shows that cyclones (i.e., tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical cyclones (ETCs)) are the major triggers of compound floods. More than 80% of compound floods in East Asia and > 50% of those in the Gulf of Mexico and northern Australia are associated with TCs, while in northern Europe and the higher latitude coast of North America, ETCs contribute to the majority of compound floods (i.e., 80%). Weather patterns characterized by deep low pressure, cyclonic wind, and abundant precipitable water content are conducive to the occurrence of compound floods. Extreme precipitation and extreme storm surges over Europe tend to occur in different months, which explains the relatively lower probability of compound floods in Europe. The comprehensive hazard assessment of global compound floods in this study serves as an important reference for flood risk management in coastal regions across the globe.

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Manabendra Saharia, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Humberto Vergara, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Marine Giroud

behind 25 selected extreme flash floods in Europe and related them to climate and basin morphology. They characterized these events in terms of basin morphology, flood-generating rainfall, peak discharges, runoff coefficient, and response time to improve flash flood risk management. Perucca and Angilieri (2011) approximated the basin behavior in response to rainstorms by evaluating the flash flood hazard of del Molle basin in Argentina. The study reported the probability of a serious flash flood

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Zhijun Huang, Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Guy Schumann, Jonathan J. Gourley, Albert Kettner, and Nergui Nanding

Floods are among the most prominent and catastrophic natural disasters in the world that account for a large portion of all geophysical hazards ( Smith and Ward 1998 ; Wahlstrom and Guha-Sapir 2015 ; Alexander 2018 ). The frequency of flood hazards has been increasing during recent decades ( Hirsch and Archfield 2015 ; Mallakpour and Villarini 2015 ; Wahlstrom and Guha-Sapir 2015 ), and more intense flood events are projected to increase in the future ( Milly et al. 2002 ; Hirabayashi et

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

1. Introduction The southern United States is particularly at risk to extreme natural events associated with climate-sensitive hazards such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and sea level rise. Even in the absence of climate change, exposure to climate variability and climate-related extremes ( Goklany 2005 ; Thomalla et al. 2006 ) could mean potential increases in stronger hurricanes, heavier precipitation events leading to increased flooding, more frequent extensive droughts, and potential

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Stanley A. Changnon

Introduction Record-setting rainfall during 24 hours on 17–18 July 1996 produced a wide variety of physical and socioeconomic impacts. The major direct physical effect was the excessive flooding along four rivers and their tributaries in northeastern Illinois. High rainfall rates and flood waters eroded soils and damaged existing structures such as bridge abutments and roadways. Damaging flooding was recorded in south Chicago, in a sizable suburban area west and south of the city, and in

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Ami Arthur, Robert Clark, Martin Calianno, Isabelle Ruin, Terry Ortel, Michael E. Wieczorek, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Edward Clark, and Witold F. Krajewski

formats to reach a wide range of users, and 2) to encourage others to submit additional, related datasets that can be incorporated into the database. There is no single source of information that holistically describes flash flooding in the United States. Perhaps it is the diverse and discontinuous nature of flash-flooding impacts that makes them difficult to observe and subsequently catalogue in a consistent database. Flash floods differ from other weather-related hazards (e.g., tornadoes, hail) in

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Steven M. Martinaitis, Jonathan J. Gourley, Zachary L. Flamig, Elizabeth M. Argyle, Robert A. Clark III, Ami Arthur, Brandon R. Smith, Jessica M. Erlingis, Sarah Perfater, and Benjamin Albright

experimental FFWs through the use QPFs as forcing in EF5 The utility of communicating the uncertainty and magnitude of potential flash flooding through probabilistic forecasts of nuisance and major flash flooding within experimental flash flood watches (FFAs) and FFWs The utility of forecasting tools, such as the Hazard Services software interface and experimental flash flood recommenders Table 1. List of MRMS and FLASH products evaluated during the HMT-Hydro experiment with product scale and

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