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Kettyah C. Chhak, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Niklas Schneider, and Patrick F. Cummins

along the North American coastline. Though as noted in Di Lorenzo et al. (2008) , the global pattern of the NPGO suggests decadal variability across the entire Pacific Ocean that may have implications for many regions throughout the Pacific basin. The structure of this paper is as follows. Section 2 is an overview of the ocean model configuration and forcing functions; section 3 describes the NPGO and PDO from the model hindcast and includes a comparison of the low-frequency response of the

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Daniel M. Ware and Richard E. Thomson

) determine the dominant timescales of ENSO events, and interdecadal oscillations in the northeast Pacific; 2) identify the time-dependent frequency and amplitude modulations that have occurred over these timescales; and 3) delineate the north–south structure for the resulting dominant modes of climate variability. Some possible causes for this low-frequency variability suggested by recent empirical analyses and climate general circulation models (CGCMs) simulations are discussed. 2. Data source

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Emanuele Di Lorenzo

-Sea Res. II , 50 , 2355 – 2370 . Chelton , D. B. , P. A. Bernal , and J. A. McGowan , 1982 : Large-scale interannual physical and biological interaction in the California Current. J. Mar. Res. , 40 , 1095 – 1125 . Chhak , K. C. , E. Di Lorenzo , P. Cummins , and N. Schneider , 2009 : Forcing of low-frequency ocean variability in the northeast Pacific. J. Climate , 22 , 1255 – 1276 . Combes , V. , and E. Di Lorenzo , 2007 : Intrinsic and forced interannual

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Antonietta Capotondi, Michael A. Alexander, Clara Deser, and Arthur J. Miller

first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 28 , 433 – 460 . Crawford , W R. , J Y. Cherniawsky , and M. G. G. Foreman , 2000 : Multi-year meanders and eddies in the Alaskan Stream as observed by TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 27 , 1025 – 1028 . Cummins , P F. , and G. S. E. Lagerloef , 2002 : Low-frequency pycnocline depth variability at ocean weather station P in the northeast Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 32 , 3207 – 3215

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W. G. Large, J. C. McWilliams, and P. P. Niiler

1524 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Upper Ocean Thermal Response to Strong Autumnal Forcing of the Northeast Pacific W. G. LARGE AND J. C. MCWILLIAMSNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 P. P. NIILERScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92037(Manuscript received 24 April 1985, in final form 27 January 1986)ABSTRACT CASID free

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Sang-Wook Yeh and Ben P. Kirtman

understand how North Pacific SSTAs are related to tropical SSTA. In this paper, we investigate the tropical–North Pacific SST teleconnections on low-frequency time scales in observations and in an ocean– atmosphere coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The current study is motivated by the preliminary results in Yeh and Kirtman (2004b , hereafter YK04b ). YK04b examined the effects of stochastic forcing on the relationship between the North Pacific Oscillation and ENSO using CGCM simulations

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James T. Potemra and Niklas Schneider

correlation procedure was performed on atmospheric forcing, transport, and ocean temperature (results not shown). Low-frequency changes in Indian Ocean zonal wind stress are correlated to ULT in a region near the ocean’s eastern equatorial boundary. This is consistent with previous studies (albeit at shorter time scales) that showed the annual and interannual variations of the ITF were controlled in large part by winds in the Pacific ( Potemra 1999 ). Intraseasonal variability in ITF transport is mainly

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Yuko M. Okumura

feedback between the PNA mode and TPDV. A lack of apparent lag indicates that their linkage is brought about by atmospheric, rather than oceanic teleconnections. The correlations are slightly larger for positive lags when TPDV leads the PNA mode, in support of the idea that the enhanced equatorial variability mediates their linkage. The PNA mode may, in turn, contribute to SST changes in the northeast tropical Pacific by affecting the northeasterly trade winds and low-level clouds ( Figs. 1 and 2

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Casey R. Patrizio and David W. J. Thompson

effect of ocean forcing on the SST power spectra is given by the difference between the black line ( H λ o F o ) and orange line ( H λ o ). As evidenced in the figure, oceanic damping acts to reduce the low-frequency SST variability (blue arrow in Figs. 7a,b ), whereas oceanic forcing increases the SST variability across many time scales (red arrows in Figs. 7a,b ). Fig . 7. (a),(b) SST power spectra (K 2 ) averaged over the midlatitude North Atlantic and midlatitude North Pacific for the heat

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Patrick F. Cummins and Gary S. E. Lagerloef

-dependent Ekman pumping dynamics could account for low frequency dynamic height variability over the Gulf of Alaska. In this paper we extend the work of Lagerloef (1995) and examine the response of the local stochastic climate model to Ekman pumping over the northeast Pacific (30°–60°N, 180°–240°E). The model is driven by forcing fields derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis and used to construct pycnocline depth variations for the period 1948–2000. In particular

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