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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

feed back onto the simulated impacts of LCC, and how these can also affect the vegetation independent of LCC. Following the recognition that the biosphere can moderate or amplify changes in climate forcing, significant efforts have recently been made to explore the impact of LCC on climate including the feedback of changes in climate on land cover. Many experiments have explored the impact of future LCC, commonly but not always expressed in terms of tropical deforestation experiments ( Bounoua et

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Jeffrey A. Hicke, David B. Lobell, and Gregory P. Asner

, suggesting that large-scale forcing mechanisms such as climate or economic conditions drove year-to-year variability in production. 3.3. County-level results Most of the United States had little change in cropland area from 1972 to 2001 ( Figure 5a ), including those regions with substantial cropland area (see Figure 2 ). Relatively large increases in area occurred in South Dakota as well as in other counties scattered across the country. Declines in cropland area occurred in California, Arizona, and

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

this observation. First, it is likely that additions to population did not increase proportion of the agricultural labor force, with the majority of the increase probably being children. This may also explain why the initial population density in the second period (POPD92) was inversely related to cropland change. Second, it may indicate the availability of nonfarm employment opportunities for the working population. Third, the negative relationship suggests the substitution of labor for other

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Deborah A. McGrath, Jonathan P. Evans, C. Ken Smith, David G. Haskell, Neil W. Pelkey, Robert R. Gottfried, Charles D. Brockett, Matthew D. Lane, and E. Douglass Williams

dominant force of change and has been predicted to be a major cause of native forest loss in the future ( Wear and Greis, 2001 ). We found that the recent accelerated conversion of hardwood forest to pine monocultures has resulted in the massive alteration of habitat at the landscape level on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee ( Evans et al., 2002 ). We found that 26 592 ha (14%) of native forest cover have been lost since 1981 and that most (74%) of this loss was caused by conversion of native

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